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丁香实验推荐阅读
Non-invasive Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for the Study and Treatment of Neuropathic Pain

In the last decade, radiological neuroimaging techniques have enhanced the study of mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Recent findings suggest that neuropathic pain in certain pain syndromes (e.g., complex regional pain syndrome/reflex ...

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Procedural Sedation and Analgesia Research

The study of procedural sedation and analgesia has experienced significant development recently. As specific procedural sedation and analgesia agents have been developed and introduced into clinical practice, safety and efficacy studies have been conducted. The principle d ...

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Standardization of Pain Measurements in Clinical Trials

Standardization of the measurement of pain in clinical trials will reduce variability, thus improving the quality of the data and reducing the number of patients needed to conduct pain trials. Standardization applies to the physical and psychosocial environment surrounding the pat ...

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Preemptive Analgesia: Problems with Assessment of Clinical Significance

The results of clinical studies on the value of preemptive analgesia are far from being unanimous. There are a number of potential problems related to preemptive analgesia that could lead to controversy regarding its clinical significance. The following potential problems are analyz ...

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Proteomics and Metabolomics and Their Application to Analgesia Research

Technological innovations have increased our potential to evaluate global changes in protein and small molecule levels in a rapid and comprehensive manner. This is especially true in mass spectrometry-based research where improvements, including ease-of-use, in high performa ...

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Measuring Membrane Protein Interactions Using Optical Biosensors

Membrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels, represent important but technically challenging targets for the management of pain and other diseases. Studying their interactions has enabled the development of new therapeutics, diagnostics, a ...

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Inhalational Anesthetic Photolabeling

Photolabeling has allowed considerable progress in the understanding of anesthetic binding to proteins, of target identity, and of site localization. There are, however, few groups doing this work, so this article is an attempt to demystify the method. We will discuss the theory, method, and l ...

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Molecular Assays for Characterization of Alternatively Spliced Isoforms of the Mu Opioid Receptor (MOR)

Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) belongs to a family of heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Studies in humans and rodents demonstrated that the OPRM1 gene coding for MOR undergoes extensive alternative splicing afforded by the genetic complexity of OPRM1. Evidence from rod ...

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Alternatives to Mammalian Pain Models 2: Using Drosophila to Identify Novel Genes Involved in Nociception

Identification of the molecules involved in nociception is fundamental to our understanding of pain. Drosophila, with its short generation time, powerful genetics and capacity for rapid, genome-wide mutagenesis, represents an ideal invertebrate model organism to dissect noci ...

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Genetic Polymorphisms and Human Sensitivity to Opioid Analgesics

Opioid analgesics are commonly used for the treatment of acute as well as chronic, moderate to severe pain. Well-known, however, is the wide interindividual variability in sensitivity to opioids that exists, which has often been a critical problem in pain treatment. To date, only a limited number ...

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Assessing Potential Functionality of Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Polymorphisms Associated with Pain Sensitivity and Temporomandibular Joint Di

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that plays a key role in the modulation of catechol-dependent functions such as cognition, cardiovascular function, and pain processing. Recently, our group demonstrated that three common haplotypes of the human COMT gene, diverg ...

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Combination of Cell Culture Assays and Knockout Mouse Analyses for the Study of Opioid Partial Agonism

Nonselective opioid partial agonists, such as buprenorphine, butorphanol, and pentazocine, have been widely used as analgesics and for anti-addiction therapy. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic and rewarding effects of these drugs have not b ...

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Delivery of RNA Interference to Peripheral Neurons In Vivo Using Herpes Simplex Virus

RNA interference (RNAi) has become a powerful tool for modulating gene expression. While delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has achieved silencing of pain-related genes in various animal models of nociception, delivery of short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) or artificial miRNA (miR ...

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Transplantation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Study of Neuropathic Pain

Neuropathic pain is a complex disease that involves several molecular pathways. Due to its individual character, the treatment of neuropathic pain is extremely difficult. Currently available drugs do not affect the mechanisms underlying the generation and propagation of pain. The ...

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Rat Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Oligonucleotides in Pain Research

In the last years, significant progress has been made in the medical treatment of pain. However, pathological pains, such us neuropathic pain, remain refractory to the currently available analgesics. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are being evaluated. We have recently shown th ...

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Linkage Analysis and Functional Evaluation of Inherited Clinical Pain Conditions

Because ion channel function is a fundamental element of any nociceptive signalling, it is not surprising that numerous channelopathies have recently emerged as likely causes of several inherited clinical pain conditions. For example, numerous missense mutations in the Nav1.7 gene ...

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Gene-Based Approaches in the Study of Pathological Pain

Chronic pathological pain is characterized by extensive plasticity of the systems involved in pain signal transmission and modulation and tissue remodeling in several CNS structures. These long-lasting alterations are mediated by, or associated with, changes in the production of ...

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RT-PCR Analysis of Pain Genes: Use of Gel-Based RT-PCR for Studying Induced and Tissue-Enriched Gene Expression

Frequently, it is important to ascertain whether a molecule that is involved in one model of pain is also involved in other models of pain. Similarly, it may be important to determine whether a molecule involved in nociception in one tissue is also expressed in other tissues and to ascertain the degree of ...

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The Genetics of Pain and Analgesia in Laboratory Animals

Pain and analgesia traits are heritable in humans and in mice. To better understand the mechanisms of heritability, animal models that provide greater control than is possible in humans over genotype, previous history, environment, and stimulus parameters are available. This chapter w ...

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Electrophysiological and Neurochemical Techniques to Investigate Sensory Neurons in Analgesia Research

The primary afferent nociceptive neuron has recently attracted major research interest because of the cloning of very selectively expressed and well-conserved ion channel genes. All parts of the neuron, sensory terminals, axon and cell body, are accessible to validated research tec ...

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