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Recognizing and Avoiding Artifacts in AFM Imaging

Images taken with the atomic force microscope (AFM) originate in physical interactions that are totally different from those used for image formation in conventional light and electron microscopy. One of the effects is that a new series of artifacts can appear in images that may not be readily re ...

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Growth Cones of Living Neurons Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy

A large body of recent literature describes the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM; ref. 1) for the study of living cells. These experimental findings clearly indicate that AFM is a very valuable tool for the 3D imaging of flat biological samples strongly adhering to a substrate, with a lateral resol ...

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Advanced Biosensing Using Micromechanical Cantilever Arrays

During the last few years, a series of new detection methods in the field of biosensors have been developed. Biosensors are analytical devices that combine a biologically sensitive element with a physical or chemical transducer to selectively and quantitatively detect the presence of sp ...

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Evaluating Demineralization and Mechanical Properties of Human Dentin With AFM

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a valuable technique for the study of demineralization and the effects of other solutions and environments on the structure of human dentin because high-resolution studies of changes in structure and dimensions are possible in nearly any environment ov ...

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Applying Atomic Force Microscopy to Studies in Cardiac Physiology

At the present time there exists a great deal of interest in the application of scanning probe microscopy methods to the imaging of cellular systems (1,2). It would now not be an exaggeration to state that atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, represents perhaps the most powerful means of str ...

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Imaging Bacterial Shape, Surface, and Appendages Before and After Treatments With Antibiotics

Bacteria are typically smaller than eukaryotic cells. The average diameter of Staphylococcus aureus is 1�0.5 μm, whereas Escherichia coli is on average 0.5�1.5 μm. The bacterial cell is also characterized by the presence of a complex external rigid structure called cell wall, which protects ...

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Analysis of Human Fibroblasts by Atomic Force Microscopy

The force-sensing members of the large family of scanning probe microscopies have become important tools during the past decade for visualizing, characterizing, and manipulating objects and processes on the meso- and nanoscale level. The atomic force microscope (AFM), in particular, ...

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Corneal Tissue Observed by Atomic Force Microscopy

The cornea is the transparent avascular part of the anterior segment of the eye and consists of a stratified nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium, a stromal dense connective tissue layer, and an endothelium facing the anterior chamber. The cornea contributes largely to the intraocular ...

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AFM Study of Surface Structure Changes in Mouse Spermatozoa Associated With Maturation

If a sample has a comparatively even surface and is fixed on a sample stage, atomic force microscopy (AFM) will give a clear image of the surface structure at subnanometer level (1,2). Because a sperm head is flat and can be attached on the slide glass firmly after it is fixed, we consider that AFM is the competent to ...

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Imaging Living Chondrocyte Surface Structures With AFM Contact Mode

In its most established mode of operation, named constant force contact mode, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied to image the 2D and 3D architecture of surfaces. Any deflection of the tip as a result of surface topography is recorded. The microscope reconstructs an image of the surface f ...

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Calculation of Cuticle Step Heights from AFM Images of Outer Surfaces of Human Hair

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an ideal technique for noninvasive examination of hair surfaces (1–11), providing a wealth of structural information not always apparent from electron microscopy. The fine cuticular structure of human head hair is of interest to those engaged in the fields ...

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Visualizing Nuclear Structure In Situ by Atomic Force Microscopy

The cell nucleus is an organelle where molecules involved in gene expression are highly compartmentalized (1) in very dynamic (2) territories. This current notion of functional organization has been possible because of many studies of this organelle that included its cell and molecular ...

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Imaging Surface and Submembranous Structures in Living Cells With the Atomic Force Microscope: Notes and Tricks

In 1986, Binnig et al. (1) revolutionized microscopy through the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM). Subsequently, commercial instruments of this new imaging technique began to appear in the 5 yr after its discovery. In the early 1990s, Henderson et al. (2) and Radmacher et al. (3) both illu ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy of Interfacial Monomolecular Films of Pulmonary Surfactant

Pulmonary surfactant (PS) is a lipid protein complex secreted at the terminal airways of the lung. The material is secreted as lipid rich multilamellate bodies, which transforms into lipid—protein tubules, planar bilayers, and monomolecular films at the alveolar air—aqueous interf ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy of Protein Complexes

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) is a rather new family of surface studies methods, having broad applications to biomedical science. The main advantage of SPM over conventional microscopic techniques (i.e., scanning and transmission electron microscopy) is its ability to study livi ...

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High-Resolution Analysis of the 3D Organization of Human Metaphase Chromosomes

The detailed understanding of the nuclear cell functions requires an accurate knowledge of the spatial organization of their structures. For many years the study of human metaphase chromosomes was conducted with light microscopy after staining protocols disturbing the native ch ...

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High-Resolution Imaging of Bacteriorhodopsin by Atomic Force Microscopy

In the last years the atomic force microscope (AFM; ref. 1) has become a powerful imaging tool for the biologist. The unique features like the possibility to image biological structures in their native environment (i.e., in buffer solution, at room temperature, and under normal pressure), the high ...

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Localization of Epithelial Sodium Channels by Atomic Force Microscopy

Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) mediate Na reabsorption across a variety of sodium reabsorbing epithelia, such as the kidney, distal colon, and airway. Normal function of these channels is critical for processes as diverse as blood volume control and airway fluid homeostasis. The mole ...

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Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Intact Endothelial Cells in Fresh Arteries

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been successfully applied not only to the topography of biological specimens but also to the measurement of their local mechanical properties. This technique is very useful for imaging such biological specimens as cells, proteins, and DNA, because no spe ...

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Observation of Oxidative Stress on Yeast Cells

Before the advent of the atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to obtain high-resolution visualizations of the surface of biological samples. Normally, to scan samples of yeast cells, each preparation was coated with a film of evaporated gold approx 20 nm ...

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