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Intracellular Messengers in Invertebrate Photoreceptors Studied in Mutant Flies

Invertebrate phototransduction is a central subject in neuroscience that includes several key topics with implications to a wide variety of cells and tissues. The phototransduction cascade begins with isomerization of the retinoid chromophore by photons that activate the phot ...

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Inositol Triphosphate Receptors and Intracellular Calcium: Experimental Approaches

Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P 3) was first shown to stimulate mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ from permeabilized pancreatic acinar cells (Streb et al., 1983) and has since become recognized as an intracellular messenger formed after receptor activation and then res ...

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Methods for the Analysis of Phosphoinositides and Inositol Phosphates

There is now compelling evidence that stimulation of inosito1 phospholipid metabolism via phosphoinositidase C (MC) is the signal transduction pathway for a wide variety of receptors in the mammalian nervous system. A by no means comprehensive list is shown in Table 1. Receptors are thoug ...

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Identification and Analysis of Function of Heterotrimeric Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Proteins Expressed in Neural Tissue

Most neurotransmitters, hormones, and growth factors that cause alterations in the rate of synthesis of intracellular messengers interact with cell surface receptors that are members of a family of single polypeptide proteins. Secondary and tertiary structure predictions for s ...

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Measurement of Intracellular Calcium with Fluorescent Calcium Indicators

Changes in cytosolic free calcium ion concentration (i) accompany many cellular transitions and stimulation of cell surface receptors. Both release of Ca2+ from internal stores and Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane ion channels can contribute to cellular Ca2+ transients. In the past, d ...

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Analysis of Protein Kinase C Function

Protein kinase C is a key element in signal transduction, cell regulation, and tumor promotion, influencing cellular responses to many stimuli at a variety of levels, including receptors, transduction systems, ion channels, and membrane pumps. Although it was once thought of as a single enti ...

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Single-Cell Imaging Technology

This chapter will describe and assess the technology by which optical indicators are used to produce images that show the distribution of a measured quantity, such as free ion concentration or electric potential, within individual cells. Common ions whose free concentrations, or activi ...

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Synthetic Analogs of Intracellular Messengers

Signaling pathways that convert extracellular stimuli into intracellular responses regulate many diverse physiological and biochemical processes, and share many characteristics. An external signal binds to a cell surface receptor and stimulates a transducer to activate an ...

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Methods in Cyclic Nucleotide Research

Cyclic nucleotides were discovered about 30 years ago, becoming the prototype intracellular messengers (Robison et al., 1971). Intracellular messenger signaling systems may be split into the following divisions:

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Caged Intracellular Messengers and the Inositol Phosphate Signaling Pathway

The development of caged intracellular messenger compounds offers an elegant new approach to quantitative, time-resolved studies of intracellular signaling pathways. Several reviews of caged compounds have recently appeared (Kaplan and Somlyo, 1989; McCray and Trentham, 19 ...

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Field Potentials in the Central Nervous System: Recording, Analysis, and Modeling

In contrast to unit action potentials recorded from discrete neurons, field potentials, as the name implies, are not restricted to the spatial domain of a neuron or of the brain. As a result of the volume-conducting properties of the brain, field potentials reflect activity of a population of neuro ...

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Human Evoked Potentials

After the current section, the history (1.2.) of evoked potentials (EP—for abbreviations, see the end of this chapter) is briefly presented, followed by a discussion of how EPs can be broken down into components (1.3.). General methodology (2.) is then presented, covering recording techniques (2 ...

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Techniques to Study Spinal-Cord, Peripheral Nerve, and Muscle Activity in Freely Moving Animals

In the past dozen years, newly developed chronic recording techniques have made possible the direct study of peripheral nerve and spinal cord function in conscious, freely moving animals. Two complementary approaches were introduced in the mid-1970s: floating microelectrodes to r ...

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Regulation of Receptor Expression: Analysis of Receptor mRNA and Gene Transcription

In addition to desensitization and downregulation of receptors at the cell membrane, the number of receptors expressed is modulated by regulation of steady-state levels of mRNA and the rate of gene transcription (see refs. 1 and 2 for reviews). Regulation of receptor mRNA and gene transcript ...

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Radioligand Binding Measurement of Receptor Sequestration in Intact and Permeabilized Cells

A frequently observed adaptive response to chronic agonist occupancy of cell surface receptors is a process in which receptors become internalized or sequestered into a cell compartment to which hydrophilic ligands have only a limited access (1–3). Although receptor sequestration ...

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Assay of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Activity by Rhodopsin Phosphorylation

Agonist occupation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) leads to a cellular response that wanes, or desensitizes, with prolonged agonist exposure. Different cellular mechanisms contribute to desensitization, including the altered function and/or expression of recepto ...

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Convection-Enhanced Drug Delivery and Monitoring in a Rat Model

Convection-enhanced drug delivery is a novel technology used to deliver drugs into brain tissue and which is currently evaluated in clinical trials. Drugs are delivered continuously via intracranial catheters and enable to achieve large volume of distributions at high drug concent ...

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Vesicular Systems for Intranasal Drug Delivery

Recently, the nasal route for systemic drug delivery has gained great interest. It provides several advantages over other routes of drug administrations. These include rapid absorption, avoidance of the intestinal and hepatic presystemic disposition, and high potential for drug t ...

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Intracarotid Drug Delivery: Revisiting the Past or Looking into the Future

Intracarotid drug delivery was extensively investigated in the past; however, the approach was largely abandoned due to inconsistent benefits. Yet, intracarotid drug delivery is anecdotally used for treating a variety of brain diseases. The rapid advances in endovascular techni ...

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Intrathecal Drug Delivery by Implanted Pumps

Direct central neural axis neuromodulation has become a viable means to treat chronic neurologic disease and injury. Although first described in 1898, technology has only recently allowed for strict modulation and adjustments of drug delivery into the centeral nervous system. Evol ...

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