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Molecular Characterization of the Proapoptotic Protein Bax

Bax is a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. Members of this family can promote either cell survival, as in the case of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, or cell death, as in the case of Bax and Bak. Bax was first identified as a Bcl-2 binding partner by immunoprecipitation (1). Subsequently it was shown that overexpression ...

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Apoptotic and Oxidative Indicators in Alzheimers Disease

Dogma suggests that cell death mechanisms can present with either a necrotic or an apoptotic phenotype. Recent evidence, however, seems to point to a far more complex picture, in which apoptotic and necrotic phenotypes might present simultaneously (1). For example, TUNEL positivity in car ...

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In Situ Detection of Apoptotic Neurons

Neuronal apoptosis plays a significant role in nervous system development and in neuropathological conditions (1). Although apoptosis is not the only type of non-necrotic, regulated cell death observed in the nervous system, it is by far the most extensively investigated (2,3). Studies in a ...

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Detection and Analysis of Synaptosis

Essentially three modes of synaptic elimination have been described (1): (1) loss of synapses in synaptically connected neurons following physiological neuron death during development or hormonally driven reorganization; (2) process (generally axonal) retraction and prot ...

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Animal Models of Metallic Dementia

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is nowadays the most widespread form of senile dementia in Western countries. AD is considered a multifactorial disease: in fact, it is probable that many concomitant factors (genetic and environmental) are relevant in the pathogenesis of this disease. In partic ...

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Animal Models of Alcohol-Induced Dementia

Alcoholic dementia is a disorder characterized by multiple cognitive deficits that include memory impairment associated with one or more cognitive disturbances listed in the present text. First, we characterize the disorder and describe aspects of using nonhuman models for study ...

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Animal Models of Traumatically-Induced Dementia

Dementia in humans following traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been well documented in clinical populations, either after a single TBI or repeated mild TBI (rMTBI). In most cases, trauma-induced dementia follows a slow, chronic time-course, and in many cases mild injuries accumulate over ti ...

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Animals Models of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus

Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome of dementia, gait disturbances, and urinary incontinence affecting the elderly population. Neuroimaging shows ventriculomegaly, and from the 70s to the early 90s invasive testing of intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebrospin ...

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Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR): An Animal Model of Vascular Brain Disorder

Arterial hypertension is a well-known risk factor for stroke and cognitive deterioration of vascular origin, including vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia (VaD). Patients with ischemic VaD have a significantly greater incidence of hypertension than pat ...

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CADASIL: Molecular Mechanisms and Animal Models

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a human genetic syndrome that causes multiple small strokes, due to a single-gene, autosomal dominant mutation with 100% penetrance. CADASIL mutations encode amino acid ...

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Animal Models of Frontotemporal Dementia

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a multifaceted syndrome with a high degree of clinical and �neuropathological variability, an extensive genetic contribution, and involvement of multiple proteins. FTD accounts for up to 50% of dementias with the onset prior to age 60. The heterogeneous ...

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Animal Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective death of motor neurons. Although ALS is predominantly a disease of motor system degeneration, cognitive impairments have also been reported. In order to determine the pathogenic m ...

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Mouse Models of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy and Adrenoleukodystrophy

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) and adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) are two inherited �leukodystrophies that result in most cases in rapid destruction of the myelin within the central nervous system. There are no spontaneous animal models of these two leukodystrophies and knoc ...

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Cognitive Dysfunction in Genetic Mouse Models of Parkinsonism

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily recognized as a motor disorder; however, patients also present with a wide range of nonmotor manifestations. Cognitive dysfunctions in nondemented PD patients can occur early in the disease and primarily consist of deficits in executive function. ...

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The 3xTg-AD Mouse Model: Reproducing and Modulating Plaque and Tangle Pathology

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating disease, and the most common form of dementia to afflict the elderly population. The disease causes a slow but progressive neurodegeneration, leading to memory impairments and dysfunction in other cognitive domains. The molecular mechanism of ...

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TAU Models

Tau pathology refers to molecular mechanisms leading to the intracellular aggregation of abnormally modified Tau protein isoforms and to the propagation of this degenerating process along neuronal �circuitry. Tau proteins belong to the family of microtubule-associated prot ...

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APOE-Based Models of Pre-Dementia

Producing a valid animal model of apolipoprotein E (APOE )-based dementia is critical to understanding the etiology and progression of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Unfortunately, no such model exists. Herein, I review all past and present attempts to create an APOE-based model wi ...

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Targeting and Excitation of Photoactivatable Molecules: Design Considerations for Neurophysiology Experiments

Each chapter in this volume describes in detail the application of one or a group of photosensitive molecules to biological research. In this chapter, we take up general prefatory questions: how to determine which molecules are appropriate to use, and what type of compound delivery and light-t ...

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Introduction to Part I: Caged Neurotransmitters

The field of organic chemistry has provided neurobiologists with the ability to release biologically active neurotransmitters at precise locations and times of their choosing. These molecules are silent before the active molecule is released by photolysis, thus allowing for very a ...

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Are Caged Compounds Still Useful

Since much of the life of cells is controlled by their chemistry, caged compounds can be used to intervene in this life in a myriad of specific ways. Organic chemists have synthesized the widest possible array of caged compounds for use by biologists. The smallest possible chemical unit (protons) to t ...

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