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Multisystem Regulation of Performance Deficits Induced by Stressors: An Animal Model of Depression

When an organism is exposed to a stressor, a series of behavioral changes occur that are thought to be of adaptive value. Among other things, the response style of an organism will narrow to those innate responses highest in the animal’s defensive repertoire (see belles, 1970) or to responses previou ...

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A Cholinergic Supersensitivity Model of Depression

It is now widely accepted that depressive disorders in humans are heterogeneous. Therefore, it is very likely that several distinctly different animal models of depression can be useful. Because of the heterogeneity of the manifestations of depressive disorders, it is important for dev ...

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The Olfactory Bulbectomized Rat as a Model of Major Depressive Disorder

The creation or discovery of animal models of psychiatric conditions, such as major depressive disorder, is fraught with many problems that are not encountered in the development of models in other areas of medicine. Some of these problems are the result of the apparent nature and complexity of t ...

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Methods of Assessing Circadian Rhythms in Animal Models of Affective Disorders

The existence of circadian rhythms, near 24-hour patterns of variation in biological functions, has been well established in many species. There is currently a great deal of interest in whether or not disturbed circadian rhythms are involved in the pathogenesis or etiology of some types of psy ...

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Pharmacological Evaluation of Potential Animal Modelsh for the Study of Antipanic and Panicogenic Treatment Effects

The present chapter reviews the effects of antipanic and panicogenic treatments in several animal models of anxiety, all of which have exhibited some degree of predictive validity based on positive effects following acute administration of benzodiazepine and barbiturate anxio ...

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Animal Models of Anxiety and the Screening and Development of Novel Anxiolytic Drugs

Anxiety is a term used to describe both a normal emotional state associated with stressful or psychologically difficult events and a pathological condition. When anxiety is chronic and is not clearly linked to well-defined events, it is generally considered abnormal and appropriate for ...

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Retrograde Tracing Technique for Neonatal Animals

Tract tracing is a fundamental technique in neuroanatomy for examining fiber connections in the nervous system. After the introduction of horseradish peroxidase 40 years ago, many tracing substances have been used for neuroanatomical studies on various nervous systems. Here, we des ...

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Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Using Biotinylated Dextran Amine

Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) is a highly efficient and powerful marker for bidirectional tracing of nerve pathways in a wide variety of species at the light and electron microscopic level. The BDA tract-tracing method can readily be combined with other anterograde or retrograde trac ...

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The GolgiCox Method

One of the best neurohistologic methods to reveal the cytoarchitecture of the brain and detailed morphology of neurons with unsurpassed clarity has been the Golgi staining. It is based on the principle of metallic impregnation of neurons, allowing visualization in their entirety inclu ...

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Routine Histology Techniques for the Developing and Adult Central Nervous System

The preparation of tissue for histological study is a multi-step process in which potential loss of quality and the introduction of artifacts can occur during each step. Knowledge of the process and the potential pitfalls at each step will serve the investigator well. Here I describe the most bas ...

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Morphological Analysis of Neuromuscular Junctions by Immunofluorescent Staining of Whole-Mount Mouse Diaphragms

Immunofluorescence or IF is a technique allowing the visualization of a specific protein or antigen in cells or tissues by binding a specific antibody chemically conjugated with a fluorescence dye. Immunofluorescent staining is widely used in life science research, particularly for ...

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Monitoring Synaptic Plasticity by Imaging AMPA Receptor Content and Dynamics on Dendritic Spines

Time-lapse imaging techniques are widely used to monitor dendritic spine dynamics, a measurement of synaptic plasticity. However, it is challenging to follow the dynamics of spines over an extended period in vivo during development or in deep brain structures that are beyond the reach of tra ...

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Semiautomated Analysis of Dendrite Morphology in Cell Culture

Quantifying dendrite morphology is a method for determining the effect of biochemical pathways and extracellular agents on neuronal development and differentiation. Quantification can be performed using Sholl analysis, dendrite counting, and length quantification. The ...

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Microcontact Printing of Substrate-Bound Protein Patterns for Cell and Tissue Culture

Patterned distributions of signalling molecules play fundamental roles during embryonic development. Several attempts have been made to reproduce these patterns in vitro. In order to study substrate-bound or membrane proteins, microcontact printing (μCP) is a suitable method ...

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The Stripe Assay: Studying Growth Preference and Axon Guidance on Binary Choice Substrates In Vitro

Stripe assays are frequently used for studying binary growth decisions of cells and axons towards surface-bound molecules in vitro. In particular in the fields of neurodevelopment and axon guidance, stripe assays have become a routine tool. Several variants of the stripe assay have been de ...

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Growth Cone Collapse Assay

Growth cone collapse is an easy and efficient test for detecting and characterizing axon guidance activities secreted or expressed by cells. It can also be used to dissect signaling pathways by axon growth inhibitors and to isolate therapeutic compounds that promote axon regeneration. H ...

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In Vivo Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay with Chick Neural Tube In Ovo Electroporation System

Luciferase reporter systems are widely employed to provide a quantitative readout of gene expression for studies of transcriptional regulation, translation efficiency, and cell signaling. The most common application of luciferase involves transient transfections into c ...

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Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Assay of Brain Tissues Using Percoll Gradient-Purified Nuclei

Protein–DNA interactions are critical to maintain genome stability, DNA replication, chromosome �segregation and to regulate gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful technique to study these interactions within living neurons and nervous tis ...

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Galactosidase Staining of LacZ Fusion Proteins

The lacZ gene product, β-galactosidase, has classically been used as a reporter of gene expression. β-Galactosidase activity can be detected using a chromogenic substrate, X-gal, which leaves an intense blue precipitate when cleaved by the enzyme. Insertion of the lacZ coding DNA targeted ...

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Immunofluorescence Staining with Frozen Mouse or Chick Embryonic Tissue Sections

Immunofluorescence (IF), a form of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with specific applications, is commonly used for both basic research and clinical studies, including diagnostics, and involves visualizing the cellular distribution of target molecules (e.g., proteins, DNA, and sm ...

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