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Clinical Treatment of Opioid Addiction and Dependence

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212
Until the middle of the last century, achievement of abstinence was the only available treatment option for opioid dependence. Most often, addicts were simply expected to go “cold turkey,” although abstinence was sometimes accomplished by way of inpatient hospitalization with adjunctive medications to help alleviate symptoms of craving and withdrawal. The general belief, however, was that abstinence was best achieved by correcting the addict’s underlying psychopathology, which would result in the addiction simply going away. Rarely were addicts able to remain off drugs long enough to be truly rehabilitated, however, and for the most part, even after long hospitalizations, relapse was the predictable outcome.
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