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Transplantation of the Sensitized Patient: Histocompatibility Testing

A component necessary for successful transplantation of the sensitized patient is timely and high quality support from the histocompatibility laboratory that helps guide selection of the best route to transplantation and the clinical care of the patient. Responsibilities of the l ...

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Composite Tissue Transplantation

Composite tissue transplantation is an emerging new era in transplant medicine and has become a viable reconstructive option for patients with large and devastating tissue defects. Advances in microsurgical techniques, transplant immunology and the development of potent immu ...

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Transplantation Tolerance

Tolerance has been defined as graft-specific survival in the absence of continued immunosuppression. The mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance are discussed in this review, as well as the barriers and limitations in achieving graft-specific tolerance. The need remains for ...

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Cell Mediated Rejection

Rejection is the major barrier to successful transplantation and usually results from the integration of multiple mechanisms. Activation of elements of the innate immune system, triggered as a consequence of tissue injury sustained during cell isolation or organ retrieval as well as i ...

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Antibodies in Transplantation: The Effects of HLA and Non-HLA Antibody Binding and Mechanisms of Injury

Until recently, allograft rejection was thought to be mediated primarily by alloreactive T cells. Consequently, immunosuppressive approaches focused on inhibition of T cell activation. While short-term graft survival has significantly improved and rejection rates have dro ...

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Alloreactivity

The alloimmune response between individuals genetically disparate for antigens encoded within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) remains a substantial barrier to transplantation of solid organs, tissues, and hematopoietic stem cells. Alloreactivity has been an i ...

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Regulatory T Cells: History and Perspective

Despite the skepticism that once prevailed among immunologists, it is now widely accepted that the normal immune system harbors a T-cell population, called regulatory T cells (Treg cells), specialized for immune suppression. It was first shown that depletion of a T-cell subpopulation fr ...

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In Vitro Treg Suppression Assays

Determining the activity of a regulatory T-cell population in vitro is often the first step in analyzing its function. To obtain reliable and reproducible results, it is critical to follow the protocol that is most applicable to your experimental question. We have outlined below a basic in vitro s ...

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In Vitro and In Vivo Analyses of Regulatory T Cell Suppression of CD8+ T Cells

The study of regulatory T cells (Treg) requires methods for both in vivo and in vitro analyses, both of which have different limitations, but which complement each other to give a more complete picture of physiological function than either method alone. Our analyses have focused on Treg-mediat ...

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Generation of T Cell Hybridomas from Naturally Occurring FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells

Generation of regulatory T cells (or Treg) derived hybridomas offers a tool to study their antigen specificity. T cells hybridomas are produced by fusing TCR α-β-thymoma BW5147 with highly dividing T cell population. In vitro anergy of Tregs is an obstacle in generation of highly dividing Treg p ...

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Flow Cytometric Profiling of Mature and Developing Regulatory T Cells in the Thymus

Natural Regulatory T (Treg) cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells characterized by expression of the transcription factor Foxp3 and the ability to suppress immune responses. Treg cells develop in the thymus in response to highly specific interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR) and self-ant ...

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ChIP-on-Chip for FoxP3

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a key role in dominant suppression of immune response and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Foxp3, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, is indispensable for Treg cell development and function. Mice and human with Foxp3 mutations are severe ...

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Live Imaging of Dendritic CellTreg Cell Interactions

The decision to launch an immune response is made during the interaction of helper T cells and regulatory T cells with dendritic cells. Recognition of antigen leads to formation of immunological synapses at the interface between the cells and to activation of the T cells. The length of interaction ...

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In Vivo Depletion of FoxP3+ Tregs Using the DEREG Mouse Model

In recent years, researchers have increasingly focused on the modulation of regulatory T cell (Treg) function to interfere with the outcome of virtually every type of immune response. For a long time, specific in vivo targeting of Tregs was precluded due to the lack of appropriate markers. Only af ...

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Antigen-Specific Induction of Regulatory T Cells In Vivo and In Vitro

The peripheral induction of Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells outside the thymus is required in order to maintain local homeostasis in distinct microenvironments such as the gut. Extrathymic induction of Treg may also be exploited to prevent unwanted immune responses. Here, we disc ...

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In Vitro Expansion of Alloantigen-Specific Regulatory T Cells and Their Use in Prevention of Allograft Rejection

Regulatory T lymphocytes expressing CD4, high levels of CD25, and the transcription factor Foxp3 play a crucial role in the control of immune responses to self and nonself antigens. In contrast to immunosuppressive drugs currently used to treat immunopathology, these cells act in a very spec ...

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Genetic Tools for Analysis of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells In Vivo

The discovery of Foxp3 as a reliable marker for murine regulatory T cells has led to an explosion in the development of genetic tools for investigating the biology of regulatory T cells. More than 25 Foxp3-based mouse strains have been published with a variety of characteristics. The effects of Fox ...

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Analysis of Human FOXP3+ Treg Cells Phenotype and Function

Naturally occurring regulatory T (nT Reg ) cells play a critical role in the establishment of immunological self-tolerance in humans. Currently, the analysis of nT Reg cell function from bulk PBMC has led to discrepancies, largely due to the failure to discriminate T Reg cells from other antigen ...

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In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays

To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantag ...

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Depletion of Human Regulatory T Cells

Regulatory T cells (Treg) have become increasingly relevant in the study of human disease including cancer. Treg cells have been shown to inhibit anti-tumor immune responses, and elevated Treg levels have been associated with certain types of cancer. Similarly, depletion of Tregs by vario ...

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