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Are Low Molecular Weight Heparins the Same

Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) of different chain length, molecular weight distribution, and different physiochemical characteristics that result from their diverse methods of preparation, which make them non-interchangeable. The ...

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Heparin and Low Molecular Weight Heparin in Thrombosis, Cancer, and Inflammatory Diseases

Despite the research and development efforts in newer anticoagulants, unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) will continue to play a pivotal role in the management of thrombotic disorders. Although bleeding and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia ...

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Antithrombotic Drugs for the Treatment of Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

Heparin remains the anticoagulant of choice in the therapy of thromboembolic events. Heparin is effective in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), as a surgical anticoagulant, and in interventional cardiology (1). Heparin is also used in the treatment of unstab ...

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Laboratory Methods for Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Because the pathophysiology of this complex disorder has remained unclear, so has the development of supportive diagnostic laboratory assays. The currently available laboratory met ...

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Factor Xa Inhibitors

Serine proteases play an important role in the process of thrombogenesis. In the coagulation network, various serine proteases are activated that facilitate the formation of factor Xa (1). The serine protease factor Xa has a central role in coagulation and platelet activation. Factor Xa is an ...

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Tissue Factor/VIIa in Thrombosis and Cancer

Tissue factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a receptor and cofactor for activated factor VII (factor VIIa) to initiate blood coagulation. Although TF has been characterized best for its role in blood coagulation, recent studies have suggested a role for the molecule ...

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Molecular Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia and Dyskeratosis Congenita

The inherited bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes Fanconi anemia (1) and dyskeratosis congenita (2) are genetic disorders in which patients develop BM failure at a high frequency, usually in association with a number of somatic abnormalities. They are the best characterized and the most com ...

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Antenatal Diagnosis of Hemoglobinopathies

The hemoglobinopathies are a diverse group of inherited recessive disorders that include the thalassemias and sickle-cell disease. They were the first genetic diseases to be characterized at the molecular level and consequently have been used as a prototype for the development of new te ...

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Molecular Diagnosis of Diamond-Blackfan Anemia

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a rare congenital pure red cell aplasia, with an incidence of 4–7 per million live births (1–5). Typically, affected children present in the second or third month of life with profound anemia, often in association with craniofacial (6) or thumb anomalies (2,7), and s ...

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Prenatal Diagnosis of Hemophilia

There are widely differing views about the acceptability of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion for hemophilia both among affected families and healthcare professionals. This debate is beyond the scope of this chapter, but it is essential that the mechanistic approach outlin ...

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Human Platelet Antigen Genotyping by PCR-SSP in Neonatal/Fetal Alloimmune Thrombocytopenia

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), or fetal maternal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FMAIT), is a rare disease caused by maternal alloimmunization to inherited paternal human platelet antigens (HPA) expressed on fetal platelets (see Note 1). Maternal anti-HPA IgG ant ...

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Molecular Diagnosis of Congenital Immunodeficiency

The congenital immunodeficiencies are a group of inherited conditions in which there are defects of immune function. The last decade has seen the identification of most of the genes defective in these disorders (1). Diagnostic genetic assays have been developed for many of these conditions ...

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Multiplex PCR for the Detection of the Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin 20210A Mutations

An extensive published literature now exists on the role of heritable thrombophilia in adult thromboembolic disease (1). Activated protein C resistance (APCR) secondary to the factor V (FV) Leiden mutation is a relatively common genetic defect, occurring in 2–15% of Caucasian populati ...

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Fluorescent IgH Fingerprinting to Assess Minimal Residual Disease in Childhood B-Lineage ALL

Minimal residual disease (MRD) refers to the presence of clonal cells in the bone marrow at a level below morphological detection. It is possible to detect low levels of bone marrow disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) by flow cytometry, ploidy studies, fluorescent in situ hybridiza ...

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Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR to Detect Fusion Gene Transcripts Associated With AML

Relapse remains a major cause of treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, patients destined to relapse cannot be reliably distinguished on the basis of pretreatment characteristics. Hence, there has been considerable interest in strategies for detection of mini ...

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Real-Time PCR to Detect Minimal Residual Disease in Childhood ALL

Measurement of minimal residual leukemia at early time points during therapy has now been shown to predict reliably outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (1-3). Consequently, ongoing European treatment protocols are using this technology to stratify therapy. Cu ...

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Oligonucleotide Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Leukemia

Analysis of gene expression is used to appreciate gene function, as the pool of messenger RNA (mRNA) determines, at least partly, the physiological status of the cell. Until now it has been possible to measure single gene function only by Northern assays or reverse transcriptase-polymerase ch ...

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Molecular Techniques to Improve Outcome in Childhood ALL

During the last two decades, survival in cases of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved from 50% to approx 80%. This has been achieved primarily by intensifying therapy, particularly for high-risk groups (1). During this period, biological features of the disease have be ...

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Molecular Cytogenetics in Childhood Leukemia

In the last decade molecular cytogenetics, or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), has become an important complementary procedure to routine chromosomal analysis. The most significant consequence from cytogenetic studies in childhood leukemia has been the associati ...

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HLA Low-Resolution Genotyping for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Hemopoietic stem cell transplantation from a fully matched sibling donor has been successfully carried out since the mid-1960s. Unfortunately only a third of potential transplant recipients have a fully matched sibling. In addition in the early 1990s it became apparent that the serolo ...

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