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丁香实验推荐阅读
Reconstitution of Hematopoiesis Following Transplantation Into Neonatal Mice

The primary sites of hematopoiesis change during murine ontogeny. The first blood cells emerge in two waves in the yolk sac; primitive erythroblasts, megakaryocytes, and macrophages emerge on embryonic d (E) 7.0, whereas definitive progenitor cells appear as clusters within the yolk sac v ...

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Reconstitution of Hematopoiesis Following Intrauterine Transplantation of Stem Cells

In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an entirely nonmyeloablative approach to achieve mixed hematopoietic chimerism and associated donor-specific tolerance. This chapter provides the rationale and methodologic detail for the administration of stem cells ...

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Flow Cytometric Analysis of Hematopoietic Development

More than 30 yr ago, a collection of cells isolated from the bone marrow were first demonstrated to repopulate hematopoiesis in a radioablated animal. These cells self-renewed while producing all of the blood products and were named hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Since then, HSCs have been a tr ...

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Quantitative Trait Analysis in the Investigation of Function and Aging of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Extensive genetically determined quantitative variation exists in the number and function of hematopoietic stem cells in inbred mouse strains. Furthermore, aging of hematopoietic stem cells is genetically determined. Gene identification of quantitative trait loci invol ...

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Inducible Transgene Expression in Mouse Stem Cells

Embryonic stem (ES) cells serve as a potentially unlimited source of cells and tissues to treat a number of genetic and malignant diseases. The differentiation of these cells into specific cell types is an area of very active investigation. One method of manipulating ES cell differentiation is ...

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Gene Targeting and Transgenic Strategies for the Analysis of Hematopoietic Development in the Mouse

The generation of gene-targeted and transgenic mouse models facilitates the in vivo study of mammalian gene function. Advances in technologies to engineer the mouse genome have extended the choice of gene manipulation from straightforward gene inactivation or overexpression to d ...

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The Design of Randomized Controlled Trials

Today's clinical practice relies on the application of well-designed clinical research, the gold standard test of an intervention being the randomized controlled trial. Principles of the randomized controlled trial include emphasis on the principal research question, random ...

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Modeling Longitudinal Data, I: Principles of Multivariate Analysis

Statistical models are used to study the relationship between exposure and disease while accounting for the potential role of other factors' impact on outcomes. This adjustment is useful to obtain unbiased estimates of true effects or to predict future outcomes. Statistical models inc ...

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Longitudinal Studies and Determination of Risk

Longitudinal and observational study designs are important methodologies to investigate potential associations that may not be amenable to RCTs. In many cases, they may be performed using existing data and are often cost-effective ways of addressing important questions. The major d ...

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On Framing the Research Question and Choosing the Appropriate Research Design

Clinical epidemiology is the science of human disease investigation with a focus on diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The generation of a reasonable question requires the definition of patients, interventions, controls, and outcomes. The goal of research design is to minimize err ...

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Budgeting, Funding and Managing Clinical Research Projects

Large, integrated multidisciplinary teams have become recognized as an efficient means by which to drive innovation and discovery in clinical research. This chapter describes how to budget and fund these large studies and effectively manage the large, often dispersed teams involved. ...

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Research Ethics for Clinical Researchers

This paper describes the history of the development of modern research ethics. The governance of research ethics varies according to geographical location. However, the guidelines used for research ethics review are very similar across a wide variety of jurisdictions. Protection of t ...

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Basics of Health Technology Assessment

This chapter begins with a brief introduction to health technology assessment (HTA). HTA is concerned with the systematic evaluation of the consequences of the adoption and use of new health technologies and improving the evidence on existing technologies. The objective of mainstream ...

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Development and Limitations of Clinical Practice Guidelines

Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners and patients reach appropriate health care decisions. If developed properly, clinical practice guidelines assimilate and translate an abundance of evidence published on a dai ...

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The Role of Health Economics within Clinical Research

The pressure for health care systems to provide more resource-intensive health care and newer, more costly therapies is significant, despite limited health care budgets. It is not surprising, then, that demonstration that a new therapy is effective is no longer sufficient to ensure that it can ...

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Primer on Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

A systematic review uses an explicitly defined process to comprehensively identify all studies pertaining to a specific focused question, appraise the methods of the studies, summarize the results, identify reasons for different findings across studies, and cite limitations of cu ...

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Qualitative Research in Clinical Epidemiology

This chapter has been written to specifically address the usefulness of qualitative research for the practice of clinical epidemiology. The methods of grounded theory to facilitate understanding of human behavior and construction of monitoring scales for use in quantitative stu ...

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Genetic Epidemiology of Complex Phenotypes

Genetic factors play a substantive role in the susceptibility to common diseases. Due to recent advancements in the characterization of genetic variants and large-scale genotyping platforms, multiple genes have now been identified for common, complex diseases. As a result, there is an i ...

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Bias in Clinical Studies of Genetic Diseases

Clinical epidemiological research in genetic diseases entails the assessment of phenotypes, the burden and etiology of disease, and the efficacy of preventive measures or treatments in populations. In all areas, the main focus is to describe the relationship between exposure and outc ...

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Measurement and Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes

The study of patient-reported outcomes, now common in clinical research, had its origins in social and scientific developments during the latter 20th century. Patient-reported outcomes comprise functional and health status, health-related quality of life, and quality of life. The t ...

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