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丁香实验推荐阅读
Targeted Modulation of Neural Circuits: A New Treatment Strategy for Neuropsychiatric Disease

The last 20 years of clinical neuroscience research has witnessed a fundamental shift in the conceptualization of neuropsychiatric disorders, with the dominant psychological and neurochemical theories of the past now complemented by a growing emphasis on developmental, genet ...

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Myelin Proteome Analysis: Methods and Implications for the Myelin Cytoskeleton

Myelin, the multilayered membrane that enwraps and insulates neuronal axons for fast signal propagation, is a plasma membrane specialization of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in the central and peripheral nervous system, respectively. Here we provide our lab protocols for the p ...

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Microtubules and Associated Proteins in Oligodendrocytes, the Myelin Forming Cells of the Central Nervous System

During the process of myelination, oligodendrocytes spirally enwrap neuronal axons and form multilamellar myelin sheets. Oligodendrocytes in culture are characterized by their numerous membranous extensions containing an elaborate network of microtubules, they are de ...

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Reactive Astrocytes, Astrocyte Intermediate Filament Proteins, and Their Role in the Disease Pathogenesis

Astrocyte activation and reactive gliosis are seen in many neuropathologies, e.g., neurotrauma, stroke, epilepsy, or neurodegenerative diseases. Astrocyte activation alters gene expression and leads to morphological and functional changes in astrocytes with important fu ...

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Cell-to-Cell Communication in Astroglia and the Cytoskeletal Impact

The cytoskeleton constitutes a dynamic intracellular framework for inbound and outbound trafficking of cell organelles and is responsible for cell shaping including cell division. While transport in neuronal compartments has extensively been conquered in particular the sh ...

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Neurofilaments: Properties, Functions, and Regulation

Neuronal intermediate filaments are the most prominent cytoskeleton component of adult neurons in both central and peripheral nervous system. They include neurofilament triplet proteins, peripherin, α-internexin, nestin, and synemin. Although it was initially thought that ...

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The Cytoskeleton as a Pharmacological Target in Neurodegenerative Diseases

The cytoskeleton plays a key role in maintaining the highly asymmetrical shape and structural polarity of neurons that are essential for neuritogenesis and neuronal physiology. In neurodegenerative diseases, the cytoskeleton is abnormally assembled and impairment of neurot ...

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Analyzing the Cytoskeletal Transcriptome: Sex Differences in Rat Hypothalamus

This chapter presents the protocol established in our laboratory to determine the cytoskeletal genomic fabric (CGF), defined as the most inter-coordinately and stably expressed gene web whose encoding proteins form the intracellular scaffolding. In addition to detailed experi ...

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Proteomic Approaches for the Study of Electrical Synapses and Associated Protein-Interaction Complexes

Recent advances in the identification and analysis of protein–protein interaction complexes associated with synapses and synaptic proteins deepened not only our insights into the molecular composition and dynamic structural makeup of interneuronal connections but cont ...

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Isolation of the Postsynaptic Density: A Specialization of the Subsynaptic Cytoskeleton

Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) are cytoskeletal specializations present in synaptic contacts in the central nervous system. PSDs have been considered to be subcellular organelles that maintain and cluster the synaptic signal transduction apparatus in direct contact with the a ...

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From an Axon into a Growth Cone After Axotomy: A Model for Cytoskeletal Dynamics

Using live confocal microscope imaging of molecular probes, retrospective immunolabeling, classical electron microscopy, and cultured Aplysia neurons this chapter describes the experimental approaches to document the cascades of cytoskeleton remodeling that under ...

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Principles of Proteomic Approaches to the Cytoskeleton

In combination with bioinformatics and molecular biological techniques proteomic approaches become more and more indispensable in order to deepen our understanding of cellular functions. Since the cytoskeleton is presented by a highly dynamic network, engaged in many basic cel ...

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Cytoskeleton Dynamics and Binding Factors

The dynamic nature of cellular cytoskeleton is vital to many cell functions. It was shown that all three filamentous components of the cytoskeleton (F-actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) share dynamic behavior. In this chapter we address briefly some basic features of cyt ...

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Interaction of the Glycocalyx with the Actin Cytoskeleton

In this chapter, we summarize and describe various methods that have been used to detect glycocalyx and to study the interactions between glycocalyx and actin cytoskeleton with the emphasis in the nervous tissue. We highlight two methodologies to analyze the direct interaction between g ...

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Visualizing In Vitro Trafficking

Here we present a detailed guide for performing in vitro trafficking assays. These are high-resolution light microscopy assays designed to look at the cytoskeletal filament-based trafficking of cellular organelles. The strategy is to partially purify organelles from lysed mamma ...

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Fluorescence Proteins and Time-Lapse Imaging of the Cytoskeleton

Visualization of cytoskeletal dynamics in real time is of paramount interest in cell biological research. With the aid of fluorescent-cytoskeletal fusion proteins and enhancement of confocal laser scanning microscopes with high-end objectives and cell-incubation chamber ...

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The Visual Evoked Potential in Humans

The visual evoked potential (VEP) is recorded in humans in response to flash or pattern stimuli with appropriately placed electrodes over the occipital scalp. In recent years the multifocal VEP (mfVEP) has been developed as a means of obtaining focal responses rather than just a summed respon ...

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Improving Motor Activation Patterns After Stroke with Wii-based Movement Therapy

Stroke is one of the leading causes of acquired motor disability worldwide. With no cure, the only way to recover motor function is through rehabilitation. Recent trials of Wii-based movement therapy have demonstrated improved functional ability that has transferred to greater indepe ...

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Visual Evoked Potential Recording in Rodents

The visual evoked potential (VEP) is an electronic potential recorded from the visual cortex in response to a visual stimulus. It provides a means to examine the function of the visual pathway from the retina to the occipital cortex. The most common animals employed in VEP laboratory studies are ra ...

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Detection of Sensitized Nerve Responses: Dorsal Root Reflexes, Live Cell Calcium, and ROS Imaging

Significant changes in afferent nerve activity and/or neuronal sensitization occur in response to peripheral injury and inflammation. One approach to study of sensitized nerve responses is to record increased peripheral nerve activity in vivo in experimental animal models with e ...

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