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G Protein Abnormalities in Schizophrenia

Since Emil Kraepelin coined the term dementia praecox, schizophrenia has been recognized as a group of illnesses of unknown etiology sharing common symptomatology with diverse clinical courses. Family, twin, and adoption studies indicate that genetic factors contribute to the eti ...

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G Proteins in the Medial Temporal Lobe in Schizophrenia

Numerous controlled investigations by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of living patients suffering from schizophrenia have found quantitative evidence of brain pathology in the form of enlarged third and lateral ventricles and increased cortical marki ...

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Determination of Adenosine Receptor-G Protein Coupling: Significance for Psychiatric and Neurological Disorders

The purine nucleoside adenosine has been shown to act as a neuromodulator in many areas of the mammalian brain. One of the main actions of adenosine in the central nervous system is the modulation of the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. Adenosine acts as a general depressant in the brain. In co ...

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G Proteins in the Pathophysiology and Treatment of Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Mood and anxiety disorders are common, severe, chronic, and often life-threatening illnesses. Despite wellestablished genetic diatheses and extensive research, the biochemical abnormalities underlying the predisposition to, and the pathophysiology of, these disorders ...

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Live Imaging of Neural Cell Functions

To determine the cell autonomous and environmental factors that control the differentiation of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, we have used neurospheres made of primary neural progenitor cells. These organoids are amenable to the live cell imaging of several paramete ...

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Detection of Cell Death in Neuronal Cultures

In this chapter we describe a technically simple and cost-effective method for quantifying apoptotic and non-apoptotic cell death in primary neuronal cultures. The method consists of three assays: cell viability assay, nuclear morphology assay, and caspase-3 activity assay (Creg ...

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Culture and Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells

We describe the steps in detail to expand human neural stem cells, to bank and cryopreserve the stem cells. The methods described in this protocol represent the latest improvement in tissue culture and molecular biology reagents to help identify specific cell lineages. Specific tissue cul ...

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Isolation and Culture of Primary Human CNS Neural Cells

We present our current methods for isolating and culturing cells from the adult and fetal human CNS. The cell isolation procedures used are also well suited to obtain samples for immediate RNA- and protein-based analyses, particularly as techniques to minimize the amount of material needed b ...

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Intracellular Calcium Assays in Dissociated Primary Cortical Neurons

In this chapter, the basic tools and methods to isolate neurons from the embryonic rat cortex are provided. We outline the isolation of fresh neuronal cells and their storage, post-thaw maintenance, and the application of techniques to measure intracellular calcium changes in response to t ...

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Primary Sensory and Motor Neuron Cultures

The cell culture study of neuronal activity in health and disease requires careful consideration of the system used. All neurons are definitely not created equal, and isolation of mature neurons from the tissue of interest is crucial to the understanding of that particular population of neu ...

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Intrathecal Delivery of Stem Cells to the Spinal Cord

Cellular transplantation is a promising therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury (SCI); the clinical application of transplantation, however, will require safe and efficient protocols of cell delivery. Lumbar puncture (LP) is a minimally invasive delivery method that allows m ...

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Dissociated Hippocampal Cultures

A popular approach to study living neurons involves the preparation of dissociated cultures. If isolated from neonatal or embryonic animals, neurons survive their removal and subsequent dissociation procedures. They grow processes on appropriate substrates, acquire mature n ...

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An Engineered Peptide Compound Platform Technology Incorporating Angiopep for Crossing the BBB

The blood–brain barrier (BBB), formed by the endothelial cells of the brain capillaries, restricts access to brain cells of blood-borne compounds and allows only nutrients essential for normal metabolism to reach brain cells. This results in the inability of both small and large therapeut ...

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Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Gene Delivery to Intracranial Glioma

Virus-mediated gene therapies against brain tumors have been limited by the difficulty in tracking glioma cells infiltrating the brain parenchyma. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are particularly attractive cells for clinical use in cell-based therapies because they have tumor- ...

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Dynamic In Vivo Imaging of Receptors in Small Animals Using Positron Emission Tomography

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging technique that is used to study biological processes in vivo. Data obtained in a PET scan can provide information regarding tissue physiology or pathophysiology, as well as pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic informati ...

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The Generation of Receptor-Selective Antibodies

Antibodies have played a key role in receptor research. These immunoglobulms (Ig) frequently have greater affinities and selectivities for receptors than pharmacological probes. They are often the only probes available that can discern proteins with similar structural and phar ...

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Methods for Transient Expression of Hetero-Oligomeric Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

Transient transfectron of mammalian cell lines with recombinant DNA has become a common tool for studying functional and structural properties of a wide variety of proteins (1–5). Transient transfections are especially practical for the expression of recombinant multisubunit c ...

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Introduction to Stroke Genomics

Translation of the explosion in knowledge of acute ischemic stroke into satisfactory treatment regimens has yet to happen. At present tPA, intra-arterial prourokinase and low-molecular-weight heparin form the vanguard for therapeutic intervention, yet these treatments have a l ...

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Choice, Methodology, and Characterization of Focal Ischemic Stroke Models: The Search for Clinical Relevance

To develop novel neuroprotective or neurorestorative agents for clinical application, the appropriate selection and characterization of preclinical focal stroke models is required to provide confidence in predicting therapeutic efficacy. Compelling evidence for nov ...

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Mutant Animal Models of Stroke and Gene Expression: The Stroke-Prone Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

The recent completion of the Human Genome Project provides the potential to advance our knowledge of pathogenesis and identify the gene(s) associated with particular diseases. However, using human DNA to correlate individual genomic variations with particular disorders such as st ...

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