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Application of fMRI to Multiple Sclerosis and Other White Matter Disorders

The variable effectiveness of reparative and recovery mechanisms following tissue damage is among the factors that might contribute to explain, at least partially, the paucity of the correlation between clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with white ...

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fMRI in Cerebrovascular Disorders

Stroke is a major cause of long-term disability worldwide. One of the key factors underpinning recovery of function is reorganization of surviving neural networks. Noninvasive techniques such as fMRI allow this reorganization to be studied in humans. However, the design of experiments ...

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Integration of Measures of Functional and Structural MRI

Recent years have seen a renewed interest in brain anatomy in the neuroimaging community. Developments in techniques for structural MR acquisition and analysis have opened new opportunities for structural mapping of the living human brain. For example, high-resolution MR imaging can ...

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Functional MRI of the Spinal Cord

Evidence to date shows that fMRI of the spinal cord (spinal fMRI) can reliably demonstrate regions involved with sensation of tactile, thermal, and painful stimuli, and with motor tasks. The spin-echo-based spinal fMRI method with “signal enhancement by extravascular protons” contrast ...

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Swimming as an Assessment of Hindlimb Function in Animals with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

In the field of spinal cord injury, there is a need for accurate and versatile behavioral assessments. Locomotor rating scales (BBB and BMS; see Burke and Magnuson, Chap. 47) form the foundation of behavioral assessments, but combining them with objective techniques provides a more comprehe ...

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Neuroimaging Assessment of Spinal Cord Injury in Rodents

In vivo preclinical imaging of spinal cord injury (SCI) in rodent models is sought after for obtaining clinically relevant neuropatholocial information in translational research. The ability to noninvasively monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of injury response allows ...

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Retrograde Axonal Tract Tracing

Deficits in sensory and motor function after spinal cord injury are attributable primarily to the interruption of long sensory and motor axonal tracts in the spinal cord. Different spinal cord tracts display different vulnerability to the injury, capability to regenerate, and contri ...

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Assessment of Lesion and Tissue Sparing Volumes Following Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord trauma causes acute hemorrhage and ischemia, which in turn initiate a cascade of secondary events resulting in cell death and loss of neural tissue at the site of impact. In contusion or compression injuries, the ensuing tissue damage can extend several segments rostral and caudal to ...

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Morphological Assessments Following Spinal Cord Injury

Spinal cord injury (SCI), by name alone, infers damage to structural elements of the spinal cord. The spinal white matter, composed of ascending (sensory) and descending (motor and autonomic) axonal tracts, and gray matter, which encompasses columns of neural cell bodies and glial cells, can be ...

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Introduction on Assessments for Spinal Cord Injury

This chapter introduces the chapters of Part VIII, which describe a variety of assessment methods to determine the outcomes after spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models. The SCI community should be encouraged by the view that SCI has certain advantages for translation of therapies in humans ...

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Vestibular Assessments Following Traumatic Brain Injury

Motor function is a common deficit in patients who have experienced a traumatic brain injury (TBI). These deficits include difficulties with balance, increased dizziness, reductions in strength, and fine motor difficulties. Clinically relevant rodent models of TBI have utilized co ...

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Neurobehavioral Assessments of Traumatic Brain Injury

Assessment of neurologic deficit following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is integral to effective evaluation of injury severity, course, and recovery. Paradigms that involve training regimens can be difficult to employ and may not be feasible for short survival time points or simple mon ...

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Assessments of Oxidative Damage and Lipid Peroxidation After Traumatic Brain Injury and Spinal Cord Injury

Free radical-induced oxidative damage to proteins and lipids is one of the most convincingly validated secondary injury mechanisms following traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury. In particular, central nervous system (CNS) tissue is exquisitely sensitive to the process of l ...

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Biochemical and Molecular Biological Assessments of Traumatic Brain Injury

The mechanical forces imparted on brain tissue during trauma trigger changes in proteins, membranes, DNA, and mRNA expression patterns of many different cell types, such as neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes. Biochemical and molecular biological assessments ...

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Electrophysiological Approaches in Traumatic Brain Injury

This chapter briefly reviews electrophysiological applications in experimental models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The review was restricted to studies where rodents were used in one of the more common in vivo models of TBI and where electrophysiological recordings were then con ...

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Assessment of Neurogenesis by BrdU Labeling After Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. It is particularly worth noting that an estimated 7,500 soldiers have suffered TBI caused by improvised explosive device explosions in the Iraq war. TBI represents a significant socioeconomic burden. T ...

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Assessment of Membrane Permeability After Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain and spinal cord injury manifests following structural compromise of the tissue, including neurons and their axons, glial cells, blood vessels and extracellular components, and subsequent secondary injury cascades. The degree of primary injury depends on the cell ...

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Assessment of Cerebral Vascular Dysfunction After Traumatic Brain Injury

Today’s cerebral vascular physiologists have a variety of techniques available to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and assess cerebral vascular reactivity. CBF measurement techniques can be grouped based on anatomical considerations (e.g., local, regional, global), number of me ...

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Morphological Assessments of Traumatic Brain Injury

This chapter reviews documented methods for tracking morphological damage across the neurovascular unit following experimental models of focal or diffuse traumatic brain injury. Sections within this chapter focus on the chronology of morphological change in specific compo ...

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Assessments for Traumatic Brain Injury: An Introduction

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex disease, altering numerous intracellular cascades which affect neuronal, vascular, and glial elements of the brain. Structural damage is coupled with cellular- and systems-level functional impairment. The array of assessments used in stat ...

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