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丁香实验推荐阅读
EEG, Evoked Potential, and Extracellular Single-Unit Recordings In Vivo

Neurons within the central nervous system transmit information as a pulsed electrical code which is conducted down specialized processes (axons) that connect with other neurons. Each neuron can potentially connect with many other neurons and vice versa. At the sites of connections, inf ...

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Physiological Assessment in Stroke Research

Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability in the adult population in the USA. With an average of one victim every 40 s, almost 795,000 individuals experience a stroke every year. Over the past 30 years, substantial progress has been made in stroke prevention, diagnos ...

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Assessments of Reactive Astrogliosis Following CNS Injuries

The term “gliosis” is generally defined as the cellular process by which glial cells in the CNS respond to insult and is used to describe the functional, morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes that occur in response to injury or disease. However, gliosis is most associated with the act ...

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The Stereology and 3D Volume Analyses in Nervous Tissue

This chapter provides a crash course for those interested in how an object of interest or signal in the nervous system can be quantified and the volume or features of a brain region can be analyzed with systematic computation. This chapter does not attempt to provide theoretical derivation, nor exh ...

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Histopathological Assessments of Animal Models of Cerebral Ischemia

Histology is an essential technique to evaluate ischemic damage in the animal models. Histopathology often refers to the microscopic examination of pathological changes in the tissue. This chapter describes the procedure to prepare brain for histopathological evaluation. The b ...

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Assessment of Cell Death: Apoptosis, Necrosis, or In Between

Cell death and cell survival are the fundamental events in development and pathological conditions associated with virtually all disorders in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). Assessment of cell death and identification of the type of cell death are c ...

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Ion Channel Assessment

Molecular mechanisms underlying subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm are complex and still partially unknown. Molecular-biological studies and clinical trials support a central role of ion channels, but further detailed studies have to evaluate the ...

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Laser Speckle Imaging

Impaired cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF) is a main indicator for hemodynamic perfusion deficits of the brain. After aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), vasospasm may cause hemodynamic hypoperfusion and subsequent cortical border zone infarction. In order to provide d ...

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Cranial Window Assessments in Experimental aSAH in Mice

The chronic cranial window model offers the possibility of a direct in vivo assessment of the cortical surface and pial vasculature in multiple physiological and pathological CNS states. Within the last years, attention has been paid to inflammatory and microvascular changes after acu ...

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Electrophysiological Assessment of Cerebral Vasospasm

Cerebral vasospasm is chiefly due to sustained abnormal contraction of smooth muscle cells. Vasospasm develops several days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and resolves after 10–14 days. Electrophysiological techniques have been used by several laboratories to elucida ...

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Morphological Assessment of Microcirculation

Morphological changes in microcirculation during vasospasm have not been fully evaluated. Several techniques evaluating microcirculation during cerebral ischemia can also be used in microcirculatory assessment of vasospasm. In this chapter, some of these techniques that ...

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Electron Microscopic Assessment

Electron microscopic changes of arterial wall during cerebral vasospasm have been eagerly examined in 1980s. Electron microscopy is still important assessment for investigating the etiology and pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm. The methodology has been established in spi ...

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Light Microscopic Assessment

Light microscopy is a fundamental and essential assessment for cerebral vasospasm since the degree of cerebral vasospasm has been evaluated by angiography or light microscopy. Its methodology has already been established. Immunohistological study is also an important assessm ...

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Vasospasm: Measurement of Diameter, Perimeter, and Wall Thickness

Cerebral vasospasm is a complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which can cause cerebral infarction and poor outcome after SAH. Experimental investigations and experimental and clinical therapeutic maneuvers have endeavored to understand the pathogenesis of vasos ...

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Morphological Assessments of Cerebral Vasospasm

Morphological changes of vasospastic arteries have already been investigated in many studies, and its details have been clarified. However, morphological assessments are still fundamental and essential in research of vasospasm, since the degree of vasospasm is usually evaluat ...

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Introduction to Problems of Postsubarachnoid Hemorrhage Delayed Cerebral Vasospasm

The below citation that sounds like presented just yesterday, illustrates the problems clinicians and researchers have been facing for more than a half-century. Over those years, we have learnt a lot about subarachnoid hemorrhage, physiology, and pathophysiology of cerebral vessel ...

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Biochemical Assessments of Cerebral Vasospasm: Measurement of cGMP, PKC, and PTK in Cerebral Arteries

Cerebral arterial tone is regulated by a concert of contractile signals , and vasodilatory signals in arterial smooth muscle cells. After subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a variety of molecules are released into subarachnoid space and stimulate arterial cells to enhance contractile ...

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Imaging cAMP Dynamics in the Drosophila Brain with the Genetically Encoded Sensor Epac1-Camps

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical second messenger signaling molecule, the modulation of which is a central mode of nervous system function. The development of genetically encoded sensors for cAMP has made it possible to measure cAMP dynamics within living cells with h ...

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Engineering and Application of Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators

Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors are useful tools for tracking target analytes in cells, tissues and living organisms. These probes are often chimeric proteins consisting of a recognition element (e.g., a ligand-binding protein) and a reporter element (one or more fluore ...

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Two-Photon Imaging of Population Activity with Genetically Encoded Calcium Indicators in Living Flies

Genetically encoded calcium indicators make it possible to track neural activity on a population-wide level. Here we describe a preparation that enables two-photon imaging of neural activity in an essentially intact fly. We present strategies to minimize motion of the brain, both in prep ...

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