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Determination of Polyamines by Capillary Electrophoresis

The polyamines, mainly putrescine (PU), spermidine (SPD), and spermine (SPM) (Fig. 1), are low molecular mass aliphatic amines that exist in all living organs, and play important roles in cell growth and differentiation (1). The intracellular concentrations in many cell types are in the submil ...

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Identification of Mutated p53 in Cancers by Nongel-Sieving Capillary Electrophoretic SSCP Analysis

The tumor suppressor gene, p53, lies on chromosome 17p, and has been examined in a wide variety of primary tumors, xenografts, and cell lines derived from tumors. Point mutations in the evolutionally conserved codons of p53 have appeared to be the most common genetic alterations in human cancers (1). ...

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Rapid Analysis of Amplified Double-Stranded DNA by Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection

Electrophoresis is an important and fundamental tool for DNA analysis. Traditional DNA electrophoresis is labor-intensive, skill-dependent, and relatively slow. To achieve greater performance, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been developed for DNA work (1–2). The DNA frag ...

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Gene Dosage in Capillary Electrophoresis: Prenatal Diagnosis of Downs Syndrome and Rh D/d Genotyping

The first instrumentation for capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) became available 10 years ago, and, since that time, interest in the technique has grown at a steady pace. However, although CZE has been embraced by a diverse scientific community that includes biochemists, chemists, and m ...

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Serum Apolipoproteins

The apolipoproteins associated with serum lipoprotein particles give structural stability as well as regulatory control in lipid metabolism. The development of atherosclerosis is linked to dysfunction in lipid metabolism, and the serum lipoproteins are directly involved, e ...

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Urine Proteins

Urine protein electrophoresis has been used primarily to confirm the presence or absence of Bence Jones protein, a small mol-wt protein consisting of either monoclonal free κ or free λ light chains. Bence Jones protein is significant in multiple myeloma patients, because nephropathy can de ...

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Clinical Applications of Capillary Electrophoresis

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a new and innovative technique that separates charged or uncharged molecules in a thin buffer-filled capillary by the application of a very high voltage. Separations by CE are extremely fast: Some are achieved in less than 5 min, with reproducibility studi ...

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Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions

Cell-cell and tissue-tissue interactions initiate and regulate genomic expression in the initiation and maintenance of cell differentiation and tissue morphogenesis for virtually every vertebrate organ system. They operate as the major signaling system between microenv ...

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Analysis of Embryonic Vascular Morphogenesis

The circulatory system is the first organ system to develop in the embryo. It is an essential system for the normal development of other organs and the whole embryonic body. During the last several years, we have begun to understand the specific molecules that regulate the differentiation of cells ...

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Methods for Manipulating the Chick Limb Bud to Study Gene Expression, Tissue Interactions, and Patterning

From the beginnings of experimental embryology (1) through the present day, the developing chick limb has proven a fruitful system to study. The results of these studies have demonstrated the ability of the limb bud to self-differentiate (2), the role of cellular and tissue interactions during ...

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Palate Development: In Vitro Procedures

The mammalian secondary palate provides an excellent experimental paradigm with which to investigate regulation of the sequential expression and interaction of molecular signals during embryogenesis. The secondary palate arises as bilateral extensions of the oral aspect of ...

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Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells

Primary monolayer cultures of marrow stromal cells, as they are referred to in the hemopoietic field, contain monocytes, macrophages, and endothelial cells (1,2). In addition, they contain precursor cells that can differentiate into multiple mesenchymal cell types (3–5). In vitro, the hi ...

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Trophoblast Differentiation: An In Vitro Model for Trophoblast Giant Cell Development

Trophoblast cells are situated between maternal and embryonic compartments and effectively permit the embryo to develop within the female reproductive tract. These cells develop along a multilineage differentiation pathway and their growth and differentiation are pivotal ...

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Preparation of Chick Striated Muscle Cultures

The maturation of striated muscle in primary cultures closely parallels the formation of striated muscle in vivo. Primary cultures thus serve as model systems for the study and manipulation of various aspects of muscle development including the regulation of gene expression, myofibr ...

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Identification, Characterization, and Differentiation of Human Prostate Cells

The prostate is organized as a classical exocrine gland and is composed of a complex array of ductal-acinar structures embedded in stroma. The ducts and acini are lined by the secretory and nonsecretory epithelial cells, whereas stroma comprises of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and blo ...

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Study of Skeletal Myogenesis in Cultures of Unsegmented Paraxial Mesoderm

Recent developments in the field of skeletal myogenesis have identified signaling tissues that control the determination and the differentiation of muscle cells in unsegmented paraxial mesoderm of vertebrate embryos (1–3). Unsegmented mesoderm, called presomitic mesoderm ...

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Embryonic Limb Mesenchyme Micromass Culture as an In Vitro Model for Chondrogenesis and Cartilage Maturation

In vitro techniques for the study of chondrogenic differentiation of embryonic limb mesenchymal cells have been available for some time. Early methods require highdensity confluent monolayer cell cultures (1,2). The micromass culture method developed by Ahrens et al. (3) represent ...

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Electroporation-Mediated DNA Transfection of Embryonic Chick Limb Mesenchymal Cells

Electroporation has been frequently adopted as a means to transfect primary cells or cell lines that demonstrate resistance to other commonly used methods of transfection, e.g., DEAE-dextran or calcium phosphate precipitation or liposome-mediated transfection. Electropor ...

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Skeletogenesis: In Vitro Analysis of Bone Cell Differentiation

A common goal of cell biologists is the establishment of in vitro model systems that faithfully recapitulate a particular biological process that occurs in vivo. Currently, numerous methodologies exist for in vitro analysis of osteoblastic cells, however, many of these methods depend on ...

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Murine C3H10T1/2 Multipotential Cells as an In Vitro Model of Mesenchymal Chondrogenesis

Bone, muscle, fat, and cartilage are differentiated adult tissues derived from embryonic mesoderm. Under the control of specific molecular and cellular signals, mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into one of these mature tissues. The involvement of the master genes myoD, myogenin, ...

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