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丁香实验推荐阅读
Antisense Inhibition of Protein Synthesis and Function: Rabbit Retinal Protein

When considering the use of antisense technology for in vivo apphcatron, whether for therapeutic development or for the creation of animal models for human diseases, a major problem is that most extracellular compartments are constantly mixing with the blood, lymph, cerebrospinal flu ...

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Antisense Tumor Therapy: Activated C-Ha-ras Oncogene in the Mouse

Cancerous cells display overexpression or mutant expression of one or more of the genes normally used in cell proliferation. Such genes are called protoncogenes (1). The imphcation is that the targets that must be attacked in neoplastic cells are normal cellular genes that have sustained so ...

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c-Myb in Smooth Muscle Cells

The proto-oncogene c-myb is a cellular homolog of a viral oncogene v-myb found in two independently derived avian acute leukemia viruses: avian myeloblastosis vn-us (AMV) and E26 leukemia virus (1). The myb gene is highly conserved in eukaryotes, and it usually consists of 15 exons spanning over 35 ...

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Antisense Therapy of Hepatitis B Virus Infection: In Vivo Analyses in the Duck Hepatitis B Virus Model

Infectious diseases in general and viral infections in particular can be viewed as acquired genetic diseases (1, 2). At the molecular level, clinical signs and symptoms of viral infections are frequently caused by the expression or overexpression of the acquired genes. Based on this basic co ...

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Antisense-Mediated Inhibition of Protein Synthesis: Rational Drug Design, Pharmacokinetics, Intracerebral Application, and Organ Uptake of Phosphoroth

There is hardly any class of drugs for which the term “ratronal drug design” is more appropriate than for the currently developing antisense therapeutics. The specrficlty of the hybridization reaction and the surprisingly efficient uptake of synthetrc oligonucleotide derivativ ...

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Polyethylene Glycol-Mediated Cell Fusion

Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated cell fusion is a simple and efficient technique used widely for the production of somatic cell hybrids and for nuclear transfer in mammalian cloning. We describe a basic protocol of PEG-mediated cell fusion for the production of somatic cell hybrids. Fu ...

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Epigenetic Reprogramming of Somatic Genomes by Electrofusion With Embryonic Stem Cells

Cell fusion is an approach for combining genetic and epigenetic information between two different types of cells. Electrofusion for generating hybrid cells between mouse embryonic stem cells and somatic cells, which is a type of nonchemically induced and nonvirus-mediated cell fus ...

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Quantification of Cell Fusion by Flow Cytometry

Cells of different types can be induced to fuse by electroshock. Cells of one type are typically dominant and are able to reprogram the nuclei derived from cells of the other type, in fusion hybrids derived from one cell of each type. Flow cytometry provides a quick and objective technique to assess cell f ...

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Modulation of Cell Fate Using Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Extracts

The direct transformation of one somatic cell type into another somatic cell type would be beneficial for producing isogenic replacement cells for therapeutic use. Various approaches for altering cell fate are being developed, including methods for differentiating stem cells iso ...

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Neural Stem Sphere Method: Induction of Neural Stem Cells and Neurons by Astrocyte-Derived Factors in Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro

We have developed a novel method to produce large numbers of neural stem cells and neurons directly from embryonic stem (ES) cells. The method is composed of three culture stages. In the first stage, floating ES cell colonies are cultured in astrocyte-conditioned medium to directly different ...

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Generation and Characterization of Oligodendrocytes From Lineage-Selectable Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro

Oligodendrocytes develop from proliferating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), which arise in germinal zones, migrate throughout the developing white matter and divide a limited number of times before they terminally differentiate. Thus far, it has been possible to purify ...

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Derivation and Characterization of Neural Cells From Embryonic Stem Cells Using Nestin Enhancer

The embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula stage embryo bear the complete repertoire of the complex organizational blueprint of an organism. These fascinating cells are bestowed with pluripotent characteristics and can be directed to differentiate i ...

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Optimized Neuronal Differentiation of Murine Embryonic Stem Cells: Role of Cell Density

Neuronally differentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells offer a flexible and extremely potent model to study nervous system development and disease. A variety of protocols have been described to facilitate neuronal differentiation. The density of ES cells used for neuronal different ...

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Generation of Inner Ear Cell Types From Embryonic Stem Cells

The senses of hearing and balance are mediated by hair cells located in the cochlea and in the vestibular organs of the vertebrate inner ear. Loss of hair cells and other cell types of the inner ear results in hearing and balance disorders that substantially diminish the quality of life. The irreversib ...

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Derivation of Epidermal Colony-Forming Progenitors From Embryonic Stem Cell Cultures

In our two-step culturing system, epidermal progenitor cells derived from differentiating embryonic stem cells in vitro are plated on either a basement membrane matrix or in coculture. On plating on basement membrane, differentiation along the epidermal lineage is evident and repro ...

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Directing Epidermal Fate Selection by a Novel Co-Culture System

We describe an improved culturing protocol to direct embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation along the epidermal lineage in vitro. Pluripotent ES cells co-cultured with mitomycin C-treated mature epidermal cells at low density resulted in colonies that undergo differentiation ...

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Generation of Osteoblasts and Chondrocytes From Embryonic Stem Cells

The efficient generation of mesenchymal cells such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes from embryonic stem cells is achieved by following sequential steps: embryoid body formation, retinoic acid (RA) treatment, and exposure to specific reagents for differentiation. ...

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Analysis of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteogenic Cultures

The process of bone formation can be approximated in vitro in the form of a mineralized nodule. Osteoprogenitors and mesenchymal stem cells, the immediate precursors to the osteoprogenitor, when placed into culture proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts. These osteoblas ...

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Generation of Chondrocytes From Embryonic Stem Cells

Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells have complete potential for all the primary germ layers, such as ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control their lineage-restricted differentiation are not understood. Although embryoid ...

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Derivation and Characterization of Chondrocytes From Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro

The model system of embryonic stem (ES) cell differentiation in vitro via cellular aggregates (embryoid bodies, EBs) can be used to analyze cell differentiation from a pluripotent stem cell via progenitor cells up to terminally differentiated cell types. ES cells are known to be pluripoten ...

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