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MRI in Experimental Stroke

Stroke is the third leading cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Brain imaging data from experimental stroke models and stroke patients have shown that there is often a gradual progression of potentially reversible ischemic injury toward infar ...

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MRI of Experimental Gliomas

Malignant gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours and they are associated with a grim prognosis. In order to elucidate the biological properties of these tumours and to assess treatment responses, valid animal models are needed. We have developed a model where human glioma speci ...

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Non-invasive MR Imaging of Neurodegeneration in a Rodent Model of Parkinsons Disease

Neurotoxin-based rodent models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) are widely used for pre-clinical evaluation of novel therapeutics for PD and have provided insights into mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction and nigrostriatal degeneration in PD. Predominantly, magnetic reson ...

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Detecting Amyloid- Plaques in Alzheimers Disease

One of the major neuropathological changes characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is deposits of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in neocortical and subcortical regions of the AD brain. The histochemical detection of these lesions in postmortem brain tissue ...

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Assessing Subtle Structural Changes in Alzheimers Disease Patients

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the assessment of structural changes in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Early studies used visual assessments of MRI or manual measurements of structures of interest, although these methods were limited by inter-rater variability. ...

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Pharmacological Application of fMRI

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the assessment of functional changes consequent to drug administration. Two main approaches have been used: changes in functional MRI signal following drug injection compared to the signal prior to injection and changes in task-related brain ...

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MRI of Neuronal Plasticity in Rodent Models

Modifications in the behavior and architecture of neuronal networks are well documented to occur in association with learning and memory, as well as following injury. These plasticity mechanisms are crucial to ensure adequate processing of stimuli, and they also dictate the degree of re ...

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MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound for Brain Ablation and BloodBrain Barrier Disruption

MR-guided transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) has been demonstrated as a non-invasive tool for treating various brain diseases. First, FUS can thermally ablate brain tissues under real-time MR thermometry monitoring. The MRI guidance significantly improves the precision of t ...

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Highlights on Ultrastructural Pathology of Human Sperm

Applications of atomic force microscopy to ultrastructural investigation of human spermatozoa are �discussed, with particular emphasis to their most common pathological alterations, which are recognized to be associated with male infertility. Morphological alterati ...

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The Growth Cones of Living Neurons Probed by the Atomic Force Microscope

A detailed report of experimental findings concerning the use of atomic force microscopy to probe growth cones of chick embryo spinal cord neurons under vital conditions is given. The role played by indentation in the making of images and force-versus-distance curves is critically discu ...

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Normal and Pathological Erythrocytes Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

Erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs) are the most common type of blood cells in vertebrates. Many diseases and dysfunctions directly affect their structure and function. Employing the atomic force microscope (AFM) physical, chemical, and biological/physiological properties of R ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy as a Tool for the Study of the Ultrastructure of Trypanosomatid Parasites

Here, we describe the methodology currently used to analyze the structural organization of protozoa of the Trypanosomatidae family by atomic force microscopy. The results are compared with those obtained using light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy.

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Determination of the Kinetic On- and Off-Rate of Single VirusCell Interactions

Human rhinoviruses are the causative agents of the common cold. The serotypes belonging to the minor receptor group attach to members of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family and enter the host cell via receptor-mediated endocytosis. Receptor binding, the very first step in infec ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy Investigation of Viruses

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to be a valuable approach to delineate the architectures and detailed structural features of a wide variety of viruses. These have ranged from small plant satellite viruses of only 17 nm to the giant mimivirus of 750 nm diameter, and they have included diver ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy of Proteasome Assemblies

The proteasome is the essential prime protease in all eukaryotes. The large, multisubunit, modular, and multifunctional enzyme is responsible for the majority of regulated intracellular protein degradation. It constitutes a part of the multienzyme ubiquitin–proteasome path ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging of Human Metaphase Chromosomes in Liquid

Methods for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of human metaphase chromosomes were �introduced in the present study. Chromosomes from the lymphocytes were fixed and prepared onto glass slides as the chromosome spread, and observed in phosphate-buffered saline by dynamic mode AFM. ...

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Studying Collagen Self-Assembly by Time-Lapse High-Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy

Fibrillar collagens constitute a main component of many tissues, where they form a scaffold for cell attachment and provide mechanical strength. Gaining insight into molecular mechanisms of collagen self-assembly from in vitro experiments is important for better understanding ...

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Atomic Force Microscopy of Ex Vivo Amyloid Fibrils

Here, we report a study of ex vivo amyloid fibrils formed, respectively, by the Leu174Ser Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I-LS) variant and by β2-microglobulin (β2-m) (Relini et al., J. Biol. Chem. 281:16521–16529, 2006; Relini et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1690:33–41, 2004). In the work on ApoA-I-LS, the AFM has ...

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High Resolution Imaging of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies and Other Biomolecules Using Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy in Air

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a very versatile tool for studying biological samples at �nanometre-scale resolution. The resolution one achieves depends on many factors, including the sample properties, the imaging environment, the AFM tip and cantilever probe characterist ...

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Imaging the Spatial Orientation of Subunits Within Membrane Receptors by Atomic Force Microscopy

Our experimental approach is based on the atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging of epitope-tagged subunits within membrane protein complexes purified in small amounts and decorated by anti-tag antibodies. Furthermore, we can produce simultaneous decoration of protein comple ...

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