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丁香实验推荐阅读
Oral Bacterial Genome Sequencing Using the High-Throughput Roche Genome Sequencer FLX System

For over 30 years, the chain termination method of DNA sequencing (commonly known as Sanger sequencing) has been the mainstay of any DNA sequencing project. In the past, whole-genome sequencing employing exclusively Sanger chemistry has been a labor-intensive and costly exercise and an op ...

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Use of In Vivo-Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT) to Identify Virulence Factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis

Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with the initiation and progression of adult periodontal disease. The pathogenicity of P. gingivalis is multifaceted and the infection process is influenced by both microbial and host factors. It is gene ...

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Natural Transformation of Oral Streptococci

Natural transformation is found in most groups of oral streptococci, including the mitis, the anginosus, and the mutans groups. This ability has been applied as a powerful tool to explore streptococcal gene functions and regulatory pathways, particularly in Streptococcus mutans and S ...

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Characterization of Anti-competitor Activities Produced by Oral Bacteria

Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies c ...

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Bacterial Viability Determination in a Dentinal Tubule Infection Model by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

Dentinal tubule invasion protects bacteria from chemo-mechanical disinfection and frequently results in root canal treatment failures. Enterococcus faecalis is a primary causative agent, particularly in persistent, asymptomatic, and chronic apical periodontitis. In o ...

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Bioinformatics Techniques in Microarray Research: Applied Microarray Data Analysis Using R and SAS Software

Exploration of the underlying biological mechanisms of disease is useful for many purposes such as the development of novel treatment modalities in addition to informing on-going risk factor research. DNA-microarray technology is a relatively recent and novel approach to conduct ...

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Ultrasensitive Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxins and Anthrax Lethal Factor in Biological Samples by ALISSA

Both botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and anthrax lethal factor, a component of anthrax toxin, exhibit zinc metalloprotease activity. The assay detailed here is capable of quantitatively detecting these proteins by measuring their enzymatic functions with high sensitivity. The d ...

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Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Cholera Toxin-Producing Vibrio cholerae Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an established nucleic acid amplification method offering rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis of infectious diseases. The LAMP assay requires 12–18 min for amplification with a single colony on selective agar from ch ...

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Detection of Bacterial Protein Toxins by Solid Phase Magnetic Immunocapture and Mass Spectrometry

Bacterial protein toxins are involved in a number of infectious and foodborne diseases and are considered as potential biological warfare agents as well. Their sensitive multiplex detection in complex environmental, food, and biological samples are an important although challe ...

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Collection, Storage, and Processing of Saliva Samples for Downstream Molecular Applications

Saliva is an ideal translational research tool and diagnostic medium and is being used in novel ways to provide molecular biomarkers for a variety of oral and systemic diseases and conditions. The ability to analyze saliva to monitor health and disease is a highly desirable goal for oral health pr ...

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Transcriptomic Analyses of Saliva

Salivary biomarkers for diagnostic and prognostic assessments have become increasingly well established in recent years. Salivary mRNA transcriptomic analyses create a new paradigm in the emerging field for noninvasive molecular diagnosis. In this chapter, we will overview t ...

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Proteomic Analysis of Saliva: 2D Gel Electrophoresis, LC-MS/MS, and Western Blotting

Saliva harbors a wide spectrum of proteins that may reflect the health/disease status in the human body. Profiling of the proteins in saliva from a disease population can potentially yield valuable clinical parameters to be used for diagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Advances in proteo ...

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Adhesion of Yeast and Bacteria to Oral Surfaces

Colonization of surfaces in the human body by microorganisms is an early, essential, step in the initiation of infectious disease. We have developed in vitro assays to investigate interactions between yeast or bacterial cells and human tissues, fluids, or prostheses. Such assays can be used to ...

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Real-Time PCR Focused-Gene Array Profiling of Gingival and Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

The techniques for the establishment of primary gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblast cultures have been well established for over 30 years. It is only more recently, with the commercial availability of real-time PCR (RT-PCR) gene arrays that the expression profiles of up to 84 genes ...

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The Use of Gene Arrays in Deciphering the Pathobiology of Periodontal Diseases

Gene expression profiling, i.e., the systematic cataloging of messenger RNA sequences in a cell population, organ, or tissue sample, is a powerful means of generating comprehensive genome-level data sets on complex diseases. We have recently applied a systematic transcriptome-based ...

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Gene Therapy of Salivary Diseases

For many years, our laboratory has been developing gene transfer approaches for salivary gland disorders that currently lack effective therapy. The purpose of this chapter is to describe key methods used in this developmental process. Specifically, we focus on one clinical condition, i ...

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A Cell-Based Fluorescent Assay to Detect the Activity of Shiga Toxin and Other Toxins that Inhibit Protein Synthesis

Escherichia coli O157:H7, a major cause of food-borne illness, produces Shiga toxins (Stxs) that block protein synthesis by inactivating the ribosome. In this chapter, we describe a simple cell-based fluorescent assay to detect Stxs and inhibitors of toxin activity. The assay can also be used ...

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Examination of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Multiparameter Flow Cytometry

The ability to rapidly differentiate Bacillus anthracis spores from spores belonging to other Bacillus spp. is potentially useful for combating the intentional release of this biothreat agent. Furthermore, not all B. anthracis strains are fully virulent and the ability to determine t ...

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Molecular Methods: Chip Assay and Quantitative Real-Time PCR: In Detecting Hepatotoxic Cyanobacteria

Cyanobacterial mass occurrences are widespread and often contain hepatotoxic, i.e. microcystin- and nodularin-producing, species. Nowadays, detection of microcystin (mcy) and nodularin synthetase (nda) genes is widely used for the recognition of toxic cyanobacterial stra ...

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Use of a Vero Cell-Based Fluorescent Assay to Assess Relative Toxicities of Shiga Toxin 2 Subtypes from Escherichia coli

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is a leading cause of human gastroenteritis from food and waterborne sources worldwide. Shiga toxins 1 and 2 are important virulence factors linked to severe human illness. In particular, Shiga toxin 2 is composed of a diverse and heterogeneous group ...

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