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丁香实验推荐阅读
Analysis of Fungicides in Fruits and Vegetables by Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry

A method based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) for determining fungicides in fruits and vegetables is described. The sample, previously chopped and homogenized, is extracted with a methanol-water mixture by sonication, ...

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Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction for the Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticide Residues in Grain and Dried Foodstuffs

A supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) method using carbon dioxide (CO2) and cleanup by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with graphitized carbon black is presented. Gas chromatography using flame photometric detection (GC/FPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detec ...

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Application of Microwave-Assisted Extraction for the Analysis of Dithiocarbamates in Food Matrices

Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is a simple, fast, and accurate method developed for the analysis of N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamate (DMDTC) and ethylenebis(dithiobamate) (EBDTC) fungicides in fruits and vegetables. Residues are extracted from the plant matrices and hydr ...

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Enantioselective Determination of -Hexachlorocyclohexane in Food Samples by GC-MS

A method for the determination of individual α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) enantiomers is described. The method consists of ultrasonic extraction, sulfuric acid-modified silica gel cleanup, fractionation on a polar silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) column, and final de ...

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Automated Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Screening and Determination of Multiclass Pesticides in W

The method for the determination of multiclass pesticides in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) is described. Of the 174 pesticides, 158 are extracted with a polyacrylate-coated fiber at 30 to 100�C and a ...

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Analysis of Herbicides in Water by On-Line In-Tube Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled With Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

We have developed a method using in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-LC-MS) for the assay of herbicides in water samples. Chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides have been automatically extracted into a DB-WAX capilla ...

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On-Line Admicelle-Based Solid-Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Ionization Trap Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Quaternary Ammonium Herbici

Ion pair admicelle-based solid-phase extraction (SPE) is proved here to be a valuable strategy to concentrate quaternary ammonium compounds (quats; chlormequat, mepiquat, paraquat, diquat, and difenzoquat) from drinking water. The approach is based on the adsolubilization of qua ...

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Coupled-Column Liquid Chromatography for the Determination of Pesticide Residues

This chapter demonstrates the versatility and feasibility of coupled-column reversedphase liquid chromatography (LC/LC) for the rapid, selective, and sensitive determination of pesticides in environmental water samples. The work includes the setup and application of three ...

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Molecular Imprinted Solid-Phase Extraction for Cleanup of Chlorinated Phenoxyacids From Aqueous Samples

Solid-phase extraction (SPE) represents a suitable way to clean up and preconcentrate samples containing traces of chlorinated phenoxyacids. High selectivity levels may be obtained using columns packed with materials based on well-defined molecular recognition mechanism ...

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Automated Trace Analysis of Pesticides in Water

An automated system appropriate for the analysis of a variety of chemical classes of pesticides and conversion products in water is presented. The system is based on the online solid-phase extraction (SPE) of target solutes followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ta ...

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Detection of 2-Alkyl-4-Quinolones Using Biosensors

2-Alkyl-4-quinolones (AQs) such as 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS) and 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ) are quorum sensing signal molecules. Here we describe two methods for AQ detection and quantification that employ thin layer chromatography (TLC) and microtitre plate assa ...

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Bioassays of Quorum Sensing Compounds Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Chromobacterium violaceum

In most bacteria, a global level of regulation exists involving intercellular communication via the production and response to cell density-dependent signal molecules. This cell density-dependent regulation has been termed quorum sensing (QS). QS is a global regulator, which has b ...

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Determination of Triazine Herbicides and Degradation Products in Water by Solid-Phase Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques Coupled With Mass Spec

At least 29 triazines and 36 degradation products have been reported in the literature. For many reasons, no single method enables the simultaneous extraction and analysis of all of these compounds. Three methods are described for monitoring triazines and degradation products in filte ...

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An Optical Immunosensor for Pesticide Determination in Natural Waters

The river analyzer (RIANA) is an optical immunosensor able to determine different types of organic pollutants in water samples. Interaction between fluorescently labeled antibody and analyte takes place on a solid-liquid interface and is detected by measuring the fluorescence. The ...

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Microbiological and Molecular Methods to Identify and Characterize Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae From Food Samples

Vibrios are Gram-negative γ-proteobacteria that are ubiquitous in marine, estuarine, and fresh-water environments and encompass a diverse group of bacteria, including many facultative symbiotic and pathogenic strains. Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae strains belonging to the se ...

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Detection of Hemolysins in Aeromonas spp. Isolates From Food Sources: PCR Analysis and Biological Activity

Aeromonas species are water-borne bacteria that are often found as environmental and food contaminants. They have been involved in human diarrhea disease and extraintestinal infections and are considered as emerging pathogens. These infections are probably acquired by food and w ...

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HPLC Measurement of Aflatoxin B1 and Metabolites in Isolated Rat Hepatocytes

This chapter describes a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for measuring aflatoxin B1 and its metabolites isolated from rat hepatocytes. AFB1, AFQ1, AFM1, and AFP1 concentrations are determined using reverse-phase HPLC. The isocratic mobile phase is 18% dimethyl ...

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Detection and Purification of Bacillus cereus Enterotoxins

Bacillus cereus causes two types of food poisoning, emetic and diarrheal. The emetic disease is caused by a small cyclic polypeptide (cereulide), and the diarrheal disease is caused by three different enterotoxins. Commercially available kits are used for detection of two of the enteroto ...

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Detection of Clostridium botulinum by Multiplex PCR in Foods and Feces

Clostridium botulinum is a diverse group of anaerobic spore-forming organisms that produce lethal botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) during their growth. BoNTs cause a paralytic condition, botulism, to man and animals. The most common forms of human botulism include the classical foodbo ...

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Campylobacter: Isolation, Identification, and Preservation

Globally Campylobacter has been recognized as a leading cause of human gastroenteritis, generating considerable interest in the development of special selective techniques for optimal growth, isolation, and preservation of Campylobacter from clinical and environmental ...

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