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丁香实验推荐阅读
Markers of Oxidative Stress and Sperm Chromatin Integrity

Oxidative stress (OS) is an imbalance between the amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced and the ability of the antioxidants to scavenge these. OS has been established as a major etiological cause of male infertility. High levels of ROS are harmful and cause damage to sperm nuclear DNA. Ev ...

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Planning and Executing a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS)

In recent years, genome-wide association approaches have proven a powerful and successful strategy to identify genetic contributors to complex traits, including a number of endocrine disorders. Their success has meant that genome wide association studies (GWAS) are fast becoming ...

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Determination of Serum Estradiol Levels by Radiometric and Chemiluminescent Techniques

The ability to precisely measure circulating levels of hormones is a foundation of modern endocrinology. For assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), accurate determination of circulating levels of estradiol are crucial for patient management, ...

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Gene Expression Profiling in the Aging Ovary

DNA microarray is an important discovery technology that allows the analysis of the expression of thousands of genes at a time. Data from DNA microarrays elucidate fundamental biological processes through discovery of differential expression of genes not previously known or predi ...

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Monitoring Insulin-Stimulated Production of Signaling Lipids at the Plasma Membrane

Lipid second messengers play important roles in many cell signaling cascades. Lipid signaling molecules allow for high specificity, rapid transduction, and rapid reversibility of localized stimulation events. Fluorescent sensors capable of detecting individual signali ...

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Measurement of Electrical Conduction Properties of Intact Embryonic Murine Hearts by Extracellular Microelectrode Arrays

The study of the embryonic development of the cardiac conduction system and its congenital and toxicological defects requires protocols to measure electrical conduction through the myocardium. However, available methods either lack spatial information, necessitate the he ...

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Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis in Heart Development: Methods and Protocols

Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death that has been identified in the development of heart. It is likely to be regulated by survival and death signals that are also present in many other tissues. To understand cardiomyocyte apoptosis in normal and abnormal development of heart, the ce ...

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C-kit Expression Identifies Cardiac Precursor Cells in Neonatal Mice

Through directed differentiation of embryonic stem cells, it has been demonstrated that mesodermal lineages in the mammalian heart (smooth muscle, endothelial, and cardiac) develop from a common, multipotent cardiovascular precursor (Dev Biol 265:262–275, 2004; Cell 127:1137 ...

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Isolation and Characterization of Embryonic and Adult Epicardium and Epicardium-Derived Cells

Epicardium is the outer cell layer of the heart. Its integrity and function are essential for normal heart development. To study the role of epicardium in both fetal and adult hearts, it is desirable to isolate and culture pure populations of these cells. Here we describe methods with Cre-loxP techn ...

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Isolation and Characterization of Vascular Endothelial Cells from Murine Heart and Lung

The formation of blood vessel networks is a fundamental event in vertebrate embryo development. Angiogenesis and vasculogenesis are the essential processes in vascular formation. Endothelial cells play a key role during angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, and cultured vascular ...

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Indirect Immunostaining on Mouse Embryonic Heart for the Detection of Proliferated Cardiomyocyte

The heart is the first organ to form and become functional in a developing embryo and its proper function is critical for most, if not all, subsequent stages of an animal’s development. The formation of the heart relies heavily upon the rapid proliferation of cardiomyocytes at a specific stage during ...

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Analysis of Neural Crest Cell Fate During Cardiovascular Development Using Cre-Activated lacZ/-Galactosidase Staining

It is important to identify the mechanisms regulating cardiovascular development. However, complex genetic tools are often required, including transgenic animals that express the lacZ transgene encoding the β-galactosidase enzyme under the control of a specific promoter or fo ...

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Quantification of Myocyte Chemotaxis: A Role for FAK in Regulating Directional Motility

Formation of a fully functional four-chambered heart involves an intricate and complex series of events that includes precise spatial–temporal regulation of cell specification, proliferation, and migration. The formation of the ventricular septum during mid-gestation ens ...

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Analysis of the Endocardial-to-Mesenchymal Transformation of Heart Valve Development by Collagen Gel Culture Assay

Malformations of heart valves are one of the most common serious congenital defects. Heart valves are developed from endocardial cushions of the heart. The endocardial cushion in early heart development consists of two cell layers: an outer myocardial cell layer and an inner endocardial c ...

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Miniaturized Assays of Angiogenesis In Vitro

Assays of angiogenesis in vitro provide insights into vascular development and are useful in studies of agents that modulate blood vessel formation. This chapter describes techniques to induce angiogenesis-like sprouting from aortic and microvascular explants cultured in 3-d ...

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Visualization of Mouse Embryo Angiogenesis by Fluorescence-Based Staining

The establishment of a blood vessel network is fundamental to embryonic development and plays a critical role in many diseases including coronary heart disease and cancer. Vascular endothelial cells are central players in blood vessel formation and line the inside of the entire blood ves ...

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Whole-Mount Confocal Microscopy for Vascular Branching Morphogenesis

We introduce a whole-mount immunohistochemistry method for analyzing intricate vascular network formation in mouse embryonic tissues. Laser scanning confocal microscopy with multiple labeling allows for robust imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel branching morphogen ...

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Visualizing Vascular Networks in Zebrafish: An Introduction to Microangiography

Visualizing the circulatory pattern in developing embryos becomes an essential technique for the field of cardiovascular biology. In the zebrafish model system, there are currently several techniques available to visualize the circulatory pattern. Microangiography is a sim ...

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Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane Angiogenesis Model

The chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is an extraembryonic membrane which serves as a gas exchange surface and its function is supported by a dense capillary network. Because of its extensive vascularization and easy accessibility, the CAM has been broadly used to study the morp ...

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Morpholino Injection in Xenopus

The study of gene function in developmental biology has been significantly furthered by advances in antisense technology made in the early 2000s. This was achieved, in particular, by the introduction of morpholino (MO) oligonucleotides. The introduction of antisense MO oligonucle ...

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