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Lineage Tracing of Pancreatic Stem Cells and Beta Cell Regeneration

Restoring a functional β cell mass in diabetes patients by β cell transplantation or stimulation of β cell regeneration are promising approaches. It requires knowledge on the mechanisms of β cell neogenesis, an issue that is still quite controversial. Postnatal islet regeneration may or m ...

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Retinal Digest Preparation: A Method to Study Diabetic Retinopathy

Retinal digestion is a commonly used method for studying experimental diabetic retinopathy in animal models. The method allows to assess qualitatively and quantitatively the morphology of the retinal vasculature, including characteristics of endothelial cells and pericyt ...

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Positional Cloning of Diabetes Genes

Several mouse strains are diabetic already at the juvenile age or develop diabetes mellitus during their life. Before these strains become diabetic, they often show several or all features of the metabolic syndrome, which is very similar to the etiology of diabetes in humans. Under the assumpt ...

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Beta-Cell Autoimmunity

Beta cell destruction in autoimmune diabetes is accompanied by the presence of autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells against beta cell antigens. Autoantibodies to insulin are predictive of future diabetes in man and in the non-obese diabetic mouse model. Furthermore, the detection ...

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Measurement of Insulin Sensitivity in Skeletal Muscle In Vitro

Glucose disposal in skeletal muscle is a major target for insulin action and assessment of insulin-regulated glucose uptake under in vitro conditions allows the direct determination of insulin sensitivity in this organ. For this purpose, a variety of muscle preparations from differe ...

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Measurement of Glucose Homeostasis In Vivo: Combination of Tracers and Clamp Techniques

A tracer technique referred to as “pancreatic-blood glucose clamp” allows assessment in response to a change in blood glucose, insulin, and/or glucagon of whole body glucose disposal, endogenous glucose production, specific tissue/organ glucose uptake and storage, and insulin sec ...

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Measurement of Glucose Homeostasis In Vivo: Glucose and Insulin Tolerance Tests

The feasibility of investigating glucose tolerance and insulin action and secretion in vivo in mouse models has provided major insights into both type 2 diabetes pathogenesis and the identification of novel strategies to treat this common disorder. When initial studies provide evid ...

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Determination of Beta-Cell Function: Ion Channel Function in Beta Cells

For the regulation of beta-cell function ion channels are of outstanding importance. Beta cells are specialized to convert changes in blood glucose concentration to an adequate secretory response. To achieve this, nutrient-induced alterations of electrical activity are direct ...

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Determination of Beta-Cell Function: Insulin Secretion of Isolated Islets

The kinetics of insulin secretion, not just the total amount, is of decisive relevance for the physiological regulation of glucose homeostasis. Thus to characterize the relevant features of the secretory response to an insulinotropic stimulus a method is needed which is able to resolve the ...

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Investigation and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes in Nonhuman Primates

Nonhuman primates provide the ideal animal model for discovering and examining further the mechanisms underlying human type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all aspects studied to date the nonhuman primate has been shown to develop the same disease with the same features that develop in overweight ...

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The GK Rat: A Prototype for the Study of Non-overweight Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) arises when the endocrine pancreas fails to secrete sufficient insulin to cope with the metabolic demand because of β-cell secretory dysfunction and/or decreased β-cell mass. Defining the nature of the pancreatic islet defects present in T2D has been diffic ...

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Diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat

Male Zucker diabetic fatty fa/fa (ZDF) rats develop obesity and insulin resistance at a young age, and then with aging, progressively develop hyperglycemia. This hyperglycemia is associated with impaired pancreatic β-cell function, loss of pancreatic β-cell mass, and decreased resp ...

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Diet-Induced Diabetes in the Sand Rat (Psammomys obesus)

Insulin deficiency is the underlying cause of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The gerbil Psammomys obesus (P. obesus) is a naturally insulin resistant rodent with tendency to develop diet-induced hyperglycemia associated with obesity. P. obesus does not exhibit hyperglycemia in its ...

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The TALLYHO Mouse as a Model of Human Type 2 Diabetes

The TALLYHO/Jng (TH) mouse is an inbred polygenic model for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with moderate obesity. Both male and female TH mice are characterized by increased body and fat pad weights, hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperlipidemia. Glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia ...

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Pathophysiology and Genetics of Obesity and Diabetes in the New Zealand Obese Mouse: A Model of the Human Metabolic Syndrome

The New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse is one of the most thoroughly investigated polygenic models for the human metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. It presents the main characteristics of the disease complex, including early-onset obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hyper ...

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Diabetes in Mice with Monogenic Obesity: The db/db Mouse and Its Use in the Study of Cardiac Consequences

The leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse has served as a rodent model for obesity and type 2 diabetes for more than 40 years. Diabetic features in db/db mice follow an age-dependent progression, with early insulin resistance followed by an insulin secretory defect resulting in profound hype ...

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Experimentally Induced Rodent Models of Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes is one of the major global public health problems and is gradually getting worse particularly in developing nations where 95% of patients are suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D). Animal models in diabetes research are very common where rodents are the best choice of use due to being small ...

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The BB Rat as a Model of Human Type 1 Diabetes

The BB rat is an important rodent model of human type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has been used to study mechanisms of diabetes pathogenesis as well as to investigate potential intervention therapies for clinical trials. The Diabetes-Prone BB (BBDP) rat spontaneously develops autoimmune T1D betwe ...

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Assessment of Diabetic Nephropathy in the Akita Mouse

Akita mice have type 1 diabetes mellitus caused by a spontaneous point mutation in the Ins2 gene which leads to misfolding of insulin, resulting in pancreatic β-cell failure. Akita mice develop pronounced and sustained hyperglycemia, high levels of albuminuria, and consistent histopa ...

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The Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse as a Model of Human Type 1 Diabetes

The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has thus served as a model for understanding the genetic and immunological basis, and treatment, of T1D. Since its initial description in 1980, however, the field has matured and recognized that prevention of d ...

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