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丁香实验推荐阅读
Methods for Isolation of Cells from the Human Fetal-Maternal Interface

During human pregnancy, fetal placental cells known as trophoblast invade into the uterine mucosal lining, coming into contact with maternal cells including a specialized population of leukocytes. In order to understand the interaction of maternal cells with trophoblast, it is usef ...

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Macrophage-Trophoblast Interactions

During implantation and pregnancy, the invading trophoblast population is within close contact to maternal immune cells, particularly macrophages. During this period, a low level of trophoblast cell death occurs as part of the normal process of tissue renewal. Macrophage engulfme ...

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In Vivo Techniques for Studying Fetoplacental Nutrient Uptake, Metabolism, and Transport

This chapter presents experimental methods to measure in vivo uteroplacental nutrient substrate uptake, transfer to the fetus, and metabolism by the uteroplacental unit. The fundamental method involves application of the Fick principle, which requires determination of uteri ...

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In Vitro Models for Studying Trophoblast Transcellular Transport

In vitro models have proven to be effective in studying the placental transporters that play a role in the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and drugs between the maternal and fetal circulations. Although primary cultures of trophoblast cells can be used to perform uptake, efflux, and met ...

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In Vitro Methods for Studying Human Placental Amino Acid Transport: Placental Plasma Membrane Vesicles

Isolated plasma membrane vesicles from human placenta allow transporter-mediated mechanisms across individual plasma membranes to be identified and characterized in vitro. This approach is reliant on isolating each of the trophoblast plasma membranes, either the maternal ...

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In Vitro Methods for Studying Human Placental Amino Acid Transport: Placental Villous Fragments

A method is described for measuring amino acid uptake by the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta in vitro using taurine as an example. Small fragments of placental villous tissue (2–3 mm3) are tied to a comb that enables them to be moved in concert between a series of incubation and wash buffers. The ...

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Methods for Investigating Placental Fatty Acid Transport

Fatty acids (FAs), especially essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFAs) derivatives, are critical for proper fetal development. The fetus relies on the placental transfer of EFAs from the maternal circulation for development. In fact, fatty ...

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Heterologous Expression Systems for Studying Placental Transporters

We use two different heterologous expression systems to characterize the functional features of plasma membrane transporters cloned from placenta. The first is the vaccinia virus expression system that utilizes a recombinant vaccinia virus carrying a transgene for T7 RNA polyme ...

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Analysis of Trophoblast Giant Cell Steroidogenesis in Primary Cultures

Placental progesterone synthesis in humans prevents abortion of the fetus by maintaining uterine quiescence and low myometrial excitability. In rodents, a transient steroidogenic output is observed in the trophoblast giant cells during mid-pregnancy. Although the exact role of ...

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Establishment of an ELISA for the Detection of Native Bovine Pregnancy-Associated Glycoproteins Secreted by Trophoblast Binucleate Cells

The pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are a large gene family expressed in trophoblast cells of ruminant ungulates. The detection of PAGs in maternal serum has served as the basis for pregnancy detection in ruminant ungulates and also for use as markers of trophoblast developm ...

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Alkaline Phosphatase Fusion Proteins as Tags for Identifying Targets for Placental Ligands

In this chapter, we describe protocols for the generation and characterization of alkaline phosphatase-ligand fusion proteins and their use as tools for the identification of specific ligand-receptor interactions.

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Bacterial Expression of Prolactin Family Proteins

Complementary DNAs of three recombinant proteins related to the prolactin family: ovine placental lactogen (oPL), ovine prolactin (oPRL), and rabbit soluble extracellular domain of prolactin receptor (rbPRLR-ECD) were subcloned by different methods and inserted into prokar ...

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Analysis of Placental Regulation of Hematopoiesis

Placental hormones contribute to changes in maternal physiology, especially to changes in the blood system. Methods are described to express a placental hormone from a cloned cDNA by transfection into a mammalian cell line, to purify the hormone, and to assess the activities of the hormone in pr ...

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Methods for Studying Interferon Tau Stimulated Genes

Interferon (IFN)τ, a Type I IFN produced by the conceptus trophectoderm, is the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants that prevents development of the endometrial luteolytic mechanism. In addition, IFNτ acts in a paracrine manner on the ovine endometrium to induce or increase expre ...

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Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) Model for Studying Cardiovascular-Renal Dysfunction in Response to Placental Ischemia

Despite being one of the leading causes of maternal death and a major contributor of maternal and perinatal morbidity, the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of preeclampsia are unknown. The initiating event in preeclampsia has been postulated to be reduced uteroplacental p ...

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In Vivo Rat Model of Preeclampsia

Preeclampsia is characterized by the clinical triad of new hypertension, proteinuria, and edema after 20 wk of gestation. Recent evidence suggests that disturbances in angiogenic factors (such as vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor) signaling and endo ...

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A Novel Mouse Model for Preeclampsia by Transferring Activated Th1 Cells into Normal Pregnant Mice

Immunological imbalances have been hypothesized as a cause for the onset of preeclampsia, which is a very severe, pregnancy-related disease. We recently described a novel preeclampsia mouse model by adoptively transferring activated BALB/c Th1-like splenocytes into allogenei ...

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Working with Oxygen and Oxidative Stress In Vitro

Oxygen has a profound influence on the behavior of many cell types, including trophoblast. The effects are mediated in part through the generation of oxygen free radicals, which act as signaling molecules. Because of their high reactivity, free radicals are, however, potentially damaging ...

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Nucleation and Crystal Growth of Hemoglobins: The Case of HbC

Hemoglobin (Hb) crystallization is of significance both in vivo and in vitro. Hb crystals form in red blood cells (RBCs), as occurs in the case of patients expressing βC-globin (β6 Glu→Lys). In vitro, high-resolution structural determination by crystallographic methods requires the grow ...

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Semisynthesis of Hemoglobin

Protein engineering, generation of mutant or modified forms of protein, has become the first step for studying the correlation of structure and function of proteins. Design and generation of novel protein molecules with tailormade properties is the long-range goal of such studies. Such n ...

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