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丁香实验推荐阅读
A Baboon Model for Simulating Pregnancy

Estrogen and progesterone secreted by the corpus luteum regulate the function of the uterine endometrium in preparation for pregnancy. Embryonic signals superimposed on this steroid hormone-primed uterus further modulate the uterine environment to make it conducive to pregna ...

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Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells

The trophectoderm is one of the earliest cell types to differentiate in the forming mammalian embryo. It is responsible for the initial implantation and the formation of the trophoblast components of the placenta, an organ essential for nutrient and waste exchange between the fetus and its mo ...

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Rcho-1 Trophoblast Stem Cells: A Model System for Studying Trophoblast Cell Differentiation

The biology of trophoblast cell development can be investigated using in vitro model systems. The Rcho-1 trophoblast stem cell line was derived from a rat choriocarcinoma and is an effective tool for elucidating regulatory mechanisms controlling trophoblast cell differentiatio ...

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Connexins and Trophoblast Cell Lineage Development

The mouse is a valuable model for studying basic mechanisms of gene regulation in trophoblast cell lineage differentiation. Elements of placental development are conserved across species, including trophoblast proliferation, differentiation, migration, and vessel inva ...

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Bovine Trophoblast Cell Culture Systems: A Technique to Culture Bovine Trophoblast Cells Without Feeder Cells

Bovine trophoblastic cells are the first cells to differentiate during embryogenesis and play pivotal role in morphological and physiological development of the placenta. We have developed culture systems for bovine trophoblast stem cells isolated from in vitro fertilized bla ...

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In Vitro Induction of Trophoblast from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Human embryonic stem (ES) cells can proliferate without a known limit and can form advanced derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. What is less widely appreciated is that human ES cells can also form the extra-embryonic tissues that differentiate from the embryo before gastrulati ...

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Isolation and Culture of Term Human Trophoblast Cells

Experimentation with most human cell types is restricted to the use of cell lines, and this limits our ability to extrapolate interpretations to the in vivo condition. However, in studying human trophoblast cells, we have a unique opportunity to obtain large quantities of readily available h ...

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Production of Human Trophoblast Cell Lines

Our understanding of important biological phenomena such as invasion, migration, and apoptosis has advanced greatly through the prudent use of in vitro models based on isolated cells in culture. Established cell lines are readily manipulated using simple molecular biological tec ...

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Culture and Transfection of Human Choriocarcinoma Cells

In vitro models for human trophoblasts were initially established more than three decades ago from isolated choriocarcinomas. They have proven to be extremely valuable for the study of the cellular, molecular, and endocrine aspects of human trophoblasts. This chapter describes basic ...

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In Vitro Methods for Studying Vascularization of the Murine Allantois and Allantoic Union with the Chorion

Despite the importance of the definitive chorio-allantoic placenta in fetal survival, fetal development, and long-term health of the adult, little is known about how the placenta’s individual components, the allantois and the chorion, proliferate and develop. In this chapter, two tech ...

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Phenotypic Analysis of the Mouse Placenta

Placental development is a dynamic and complex process and much of our current understanding of the underlying molecular processes comes from analysis of targeted gene mutations in mice. There are more than 50 strains of mutant mice that have placental defects, and it has become widely apprec ...

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Phenotypic Analysis of the Rat Placenta

The rat is an important model for studying the biology of trophoblast-uterine development. This chapter describes methods that are useful for the characterization of the rat uteroplacental compartment.

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Analysis of the Structure of the Ruminant Placenta: Methods of Fixation, Embedding, and Antibody Localization at Light and Electron Microscope Levels

The basic structure of all ruminant placentas described so far is cotyledonary (or placentomal), with local proliferations of apposed fetomaternal membranes forming placentomes that are linked by flat interplacentomal areas. In vivo, the placenta consists of an intimate apposit ...

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Characterization of the Bovine Placenta by Cytoskeleton, Integrin Receptors, and Extracellular Matrix

The cytoskeleton together with integrin receptors and proteins of the extracellular matrix provide sensitive indices of the development and organization of the bovine placenta. The bovine placenta is classified as synepitheliochorial because migrating trophoblast giant ...

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Molecular Markers for Human Placental Investigation

The human placenta is a source for a variety of growth factors, hormones, and other proteins. The cellular source of the proteins can be best determined by immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry can also be used to identify a specific cell type and to differentiate it from o ...

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Correlative Microscopy of Ultrathin Cryosections in Placental Research

In this chapter, we describe procedures for correlative microscopy in immunocytochemical studies on the human placenta. We have adapted ultrathin cryosections for use in high-resolution immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) and for correlative immunocytochemical local ...

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Vascular Corrosion Casting of the Uteroplacental and Fetoplacental Vasculature in Mice

This chapter describes methods for making vascular corrosion casts of the uteroplacental and fetoplacental vasculature of the mouse placenta. A catheter placed in the ascending thoracic aorta of a pregnant mouse permits the introduction of a methyl methacrylate casting compound i ...

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Analysis of Fetal and Maternal Microvasculature in Ruminant Placentomes by Corrosion Casting

Vascular corrosion casting is a useful tool for studying the vascular architecture of complex organs. The synepitheliochorial placenta of ruminants is composed of two closed blood circuits, a fetal and a maternal one. The microvasculature of each circuit has the shape of the correspondi ...

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Microarray Analysis of Trophoblast Cells

A complex repertoire of trophoblast gene products governs the multifaceted functions performed by the placenta during the relatively short period of pregnancy. Cloning and sequencing the human as well as other mammalian genomes allow investigators to gain better insight into the fu ...

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Gene Expression Microarray Data Analysis of Decidual and Placental Cell Differentiation

Gene expression analysis using DNA microarray approaches have provided new insights into the physiology and pathophysiology of many biological processes. These include identification of genetic programs and pathways that underlie cell and tissue differentiation and gene e ...

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