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丁香实验推荐阅读
Membrane Transporters and Drug Development: Relevance to Pharmacogenomics, Nutrigenomics, Epigenetics, and Systems Biology

The study of membrane transporters may result in breakthroughs in the discovery of new drugs and the development of safer drugs. Membrane transporters are essential for fundamental cellular functions and normal physiological processes. These molecules influence drug absorpti ...

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The Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Assay for Evaluating Cell-Mediated Immune Function

Evaluation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a significant component in any assessment designed to predict the full range of potential immunotoxic risk underlying health risks. Among measures of CMI, the cytotoxic T Lymphocyte (CTL) response is recognized as perhaps the most relevant ...

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NK Cell Assays in Immunotoxicity Testing

It is well known that natural killer (NK) cells are involved in defense against viruses and some tumors. NK cells kill target cells by the directed release of cytolytic granules that contain perforin, granzymes, and granulysin. It is increasingly important to evaluate NK cell function in immun ...

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Use of Contact Hypersensitivity in Immunotoxicity Testing

The histopathological examination of lymphoid organs together with a T-dependent antibody (TDAR) assay are the primary components of preclinical immunotoxicity assessment. Additional testing including measurement of cellular immunity may be considered. Besides ex vivo l ...

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The Local Lymph Node Assay and Skin Sensitization Testing

The mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the identification and characterization of skin sensitization hazards. In this context the method can be used both to identify contact allergens, and also determine the relative skin sensitizing potency as a basis for derivation of effec ...

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Evaluation of Apoptosis in Immunotoxicity Testing

Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of chemical substances, medicinal products, airborne pollutants, cosmetics, medical devices, and food additives. The immune system of the host is a direct target of these toxicants, and the adverse effects include ...

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Dendritic Cells in Immunotoxicity Testing

Dendritic cells (DCs) are now recognized to play the key role in the development of adaptive immunity by promoting activation of na�ve T cells. Herein, we describe the methodologies to investigate how DCs can be modified by an environmental toxicant and subsequently influence immunity. The p ...

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Evaluating Cytokines in Immunotoxicity Testing

One of the most potentially useful tools in immunotoxicology is the assessment of cytokines, the proteins/peptides that are responsible for regulating a variety of processes including immunity, inflammation, apoptosis, and hematopoiesis. Cytokine production measurements ...

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Flow Cytometry in Preclinical Drug Development

Flow cytometry has many applications in clinical medicine allowing rapid and highly specific characterization of cells in solution (e.g., peripheral blood) or from dissociated tissues. The data generated from these analyses may be used to diagnose and monitor progression of disease as ...

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Enhanced Histopathology Evaluation of Lymphoid Organs

Enhanced histopathology is a tool that the pathologist can use as a screening test to identify �immunomodulatory compounds. This assessment is based on the assumption that chemically induced alterations may result in qualitative or quantitative changes in the histology of the lymph ...

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Immunotoxicity Testing in Nonhuman Primates

Biological relevance is generally the major justification for using nonhuman primates (NHP) during preclinical safety assessment. This holds particularly true for the evaluation of biopharmaceuticals with NHP often being the species of choice. For safety assessment of small mo ...

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In Vivo Functional Tests for Assessing Immunotoxicity in Birds

Various methods have been adapted for assessing the effects of environmental contaminants on the structure and function of the immune system in wild and captive birds. This chapter describes two integrative functional assays that have been adapted to a variety of avian species and have pro ...

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Fundamentals of Clinical Immunotoxicology

Whereas animal studies are invaluable for screening various chemical and drugs for immunotoxic potential, such systems are necessarily limited in their predictive value for humans given the differences in physiology, immune system structure and function, and various other para ...

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In Vitro Testing for Direct Immunotoxicity: State of the Art

Immunotoxicity is defined as the toxicological effects of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals on the functioning of the immune system and can be induced in either direct or indirect ways. Direct immunotoxicity is caused by the effects of chemicals on the immune system, leading to immu ...

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Virtual Screening for Lead Discovery

The identification of small drug-like compounds that selectively inhibit the function of biological targets has historically been a major focus in the pharmaceutical industry, and in recent years, has generated much interest in academia as well. Drug-like compounds are valuable as ch ...

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Using Active Site Mapping and Receptor-Based Pharmacophore Tools: Prelude to Docking and De Novo/Fragment-Based Ligand Design

Understanding the three-dimensional aspects of drug-receptor interactions and their specificity at the molecular level has become a focal point in modern drug discovery. Herein, we describe a set of methods by which the binding site on a protein can be located and mapped and the protein–liga ...

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Computer-Aided Drug Discovery and Development

Computer-aided approaches have been widely used in pharmaceutical research to improve the efficiency of the drug discovery and development pipeline. To identify and design small molecules as clinically effective therapeutics, various computational methods have been evalu ...

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Methods for Evaluation of Structural and Biological Properties of Antiinvasive Natural Products

Prostate cancer is considered the most common cancer form among males in Western countries. Very limited options are available for the treatment of advanced metastatic prostate cancer. More than 50% of today’s anticancer drugs are natural products or derived from a natural origin. To disco ...

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TaqMan Fluorogenic Detection System to Analyze Gene Transcription in Autopsy Material

Real-time RT-PCR using a TaqMan� fluorogenic detection system is a simple and sensitive assay for quantitative analysis of gene transcription. This method is of potential usefulness in quantifying mRNA of a target gene in autopsy material that has undergone only a small amount of postmortem ...

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Pharmacogenomics Applications in Drug Metabolism: From Genotyping to Drug Label-Challenges

There is increasing recognition that pharmacogenetic polymorphisms affecting drug metabolism are valid biomarkers affecting drug safety and efficacy. This is shown by the inclusion of information about genetic polymorphisms affecting drug metabolism on drug labels with, in s ...

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