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Imaging Morphology and Function of Cortical Microglia

Microglial cells are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. In the healthy adult brain “resting” ramified microglia continuously palpate their environment to monitor the integrity of and to react to any disturbance of brain homeostasis. During injury, inflammation, and ...

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Imaging of Astrocytic Activity in Living Rodents

Mounting evidence from in vitro experiments supports bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons, suggesting glial involvement in neuronal information processing in the brain. Elevation of the cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) concentration has been suggested to ...

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Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging of Cortical Dynamics

Voltage-sensitive dyes can be topically applied to the surface of the brain in order to label membranes in the supragranular layers of the neocortex. Fluorescence signals from voltage-sensitive dyes in vivo correlate linearly with membrane potential of excitatory layer 2/3 neurons wi ...

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In Vivo Population Imaging of Dendritic Integration in Neocortex

Translating the advances seen recently in recording from neurons in vivo to dendritic recordings presents special difficulties. In vivo two-photon imaging of dendrites was achieved over a decade ago and is still the method of choice for recording from small dendritic compartments in sin ...

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In Vivo Dendritic Mapping of Sensory Inputs in Cortical Neurons

Mammalian cortical neurons integrate sensory information that arrives through numerous synaptic inputs located on their dendrites. Here we introduce an approach to identify sensory-evoked dendritic input sites in cortical neurons in vivo involving the use of two-photon calci ...

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Neocortical Circuit Interrogation with Optogenetics

Optogenetic tools have gained popularity for enabling manipulation of specified populations of neurons on a precise temporal scale. These opsins, as the proteins are known, utilize retinal (Vitamin A) as a co-factor—in a form related to the same molecule used by the human retina as a light-sens ...

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Chronic Two-Photon Imaging of Neural Activity in the Anesthetized and Awake Behaving Rodent

Chronic in vivo two-photon imaging of genetically encoded sensors has recently enabled the measurement of activity from the same individual neurons repeatedly in different imaging sessions over months, opening new possibilities to investigate the function and plasticity of neu ...

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Fluorescent Indicators for Functional Optical Imaging

Optical imaging is developing towards the method of choice for monitoring the activities of large numbers of cells in the cortex of living rodents. During the last decade this approach was fueled by methodological progress in both optical instrumentation and fluorescent indicators of n ...

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Optical Properties of Neural Tissue

The optical properties of neural tissues play critical roles in all types of optical imaging methods. The wavelength-dependent absorption and scattering properties of tissue influence imaging resolution, penetration depth, and often provide sources of contrast. Therefore, qu ...

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Principles and Fundamentals of Optical Imaging

In this chapter I will give a brief general introduction to optical imaging and then discuss in more detail some of the methods specifically used for imaging cortical dynamics today. Absorption and fluorescence microscopy can be used to form direct, diffraction-limited images but standa ...

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Neocortex in the Spotlight: Concepts, Questions, and Methods

When mammals such as mice, cats, monkeys, or humans act in the world, they continually make behaviorally relevant decisions based on perceived sensory information and memorized experiences and they constantly adapt to outside challenges through learning. These cognitive capabil ...

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Animal Models for Assessing Hallucinogenic Agents

Hallucinogenic activity, by definition, can be measured only in human subjects. Nevertheless, there may be an animal counterpart, or a behavioral or physiological response that parallels hallucinogenic activity/potency in humans and will be a useful predictor of hallucinogenic p ...

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Models of Alcohol Consumption Using the Laboratory Rat

For 50 years, since the original work by (1940), rats have been used in experiments to model human alcohol abuse. The use of a nonhuman species, such as the rat, to model a behavior that seems to be inherently human has been justified in terms of the relatively economical and convenient provision of large, gen ...

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Alcohol Tolerance: Methodological and Experimental Issues

Drug tolerance can be broadly defined as a reduction in the effects of a drug as a consequence of repeated exposure to that drug. This is shown as a shift to the right of the dose-response curve (DRC) of a drug, meaning that a higher dose of the drug is required to produce the same degree of effect in a tolerant individual as ...

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Self-Administration of Psychomotor Stimulants Using Progressive Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement

With the pioneering work of Weeks (1961,1962) and others (Thompson and Schuster, 1964; Collins and Weeks, 1965; Deneau et al., 1969; Yanagita and Takahashi, 1973), which showed that laboratory animals would voluntarily ingest psychoactive drugs, an enormous field of research has developed ...

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Opiate Withdrawal-Produced Dysphoria: A Taste Preference Conditioning Model

The present chapter deals with a model of opiate abstinence in which the primary event is motivation, as indexed by the ability of withdrawal to produce avoidance behavior. The propensity of rodents to learn rapidly to avoid novel flavors paired with illness (Garcia et al., 1974; Rozin and Kalat, 197 ...

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Benzodiazepine Tolerance and Dependence

In the late 1950s, researchers at Hoffmann-La Roche discovered that benzodiazepines were able to cause changes in animal behavior that resembled those caused by barbiturates and meprobamate. Shortly thereafter, chlordiazepoxide was introduced ino clinical practice as an anxio ...

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A Rodent Model for Nicotine Self-Administration

An obvious preliminary to the discussion of models of “drug addiction” is to consider what we mean by that term. Over the past several decades, a number of definitions of drug addiction have been used. Although some of the historically earliest definitions of addiction or drug dependence relied in p ...

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Animal Models for Caffeine Exposure in the Perinatal Period

Caffeine is a widely used compound found both in drug preparations and in commonly consumed foods and beverages. Most human exposure occurs primarily through consumption of caffeinated beverages (e.g., coffee, tea, and soft drinks) such that, across all age groups, the average daily dose of ca ...

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Animal Models of Drug Addiction: Barbiturates

The barbiturates consist of a pyrimidine nucleus derived from the condensation of malonic acid and urea. Pharmacologically, barbituric acid per se does not have central nervous system (CNS) depressant action. The CNS action is produced only after the appropriate alkyl or aryl groups are su ...

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