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丁香实验推荐阅读
Measuring the Integrity of the Human BloodBrain Barrier Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

The evaluation of blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may prove valuable in the setting of certain brain pathologies, such as brain tumors and acute ischemic stroke. Various MRI protocols have been developed to explore the inte ...

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The Blood-Nerve Barrier: Structure and Functional Significance

The blood–nerve barrier (BNB) defines the physiological space within which the axons, Schwann cells, and other associated cells of a peripheral nerve function. The BNB consists of the endoneurial microvessels within the nerve fascicle and the investing perineurium. The restricted pe ...

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The Blood-Retinal Barrier: Structure and Functional Significance

Formation and maintenance of the blood-retinal barrier is required for proper vision and loss of this barrier contributes to the pathology of a wide number of retinal diseases. The retina is responsible for converting visible light into the electrochemical signal interpreted by the brain ...

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The BloodCerebrospinal Fluid Barrier: Structure and Functional Significance

The choroid plexus (CP) of the blood–CSF barrier (BCSFB) displays fundamentally different properties than blood-brain barrier (BBB). With brisk blood flow (10 � brain) and highly permeable capillaries, the human CP provides the CNS with a high turnover rate of fluid (∼400,000 μL/day) contain ...

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Morphology and Properties of Astrocytes

Astrocytes were identified about 150 years ago, and, for the longest time, were considered to be supporting cells in the brain providing trophic, metabolic, and structural support for neural networks. Research in the last 2 decades has uncovered many novel molecules in astrocytes and the find ...

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Morphology and Properties of Pericytes

Pericytes were described in 1873 by the French scientist Charles-Marie Benjamin Rouget and were originally called Rouget cells. The Rouget cell was renamed some years later due to its anatomical location abluminal to the endothelial cell (EC) and luminal to parenchymal cells. In the brain, p ...

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Morphology and Properties of Brain Endothelial Cells

The molecular advances in various aspects of brain endothelial cell function in steady states are considerable and difficult to summarize in one chapter. Therefore, this chapter focuses on endothelial permeability mechanisms in steady states and disease namely vasogenic edema. T ...

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Cerebellar Slice Cultures

Cerebellar slice cultures are a versatile method to study cerebellar cells in an in vitro preparation that preserves many aspects of the microenvironment of the cerebellar tissue. The setup of this slice culture model is easy, possible throughout the first two postnatal weeks in rodents, and ...

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Primary Dissociated Astrocyte and Neuron Co-culture

We describe a method to isolate and co-culture dissociated hippocampal neurons and cortical astrocytes from young mice (E17 and newborn, respectively). This protocol is useful to investigate the effects of astrocytes on the developmental biology of neurons. By independently isola ...

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Primary Schwann Cell Cultures

The most widely used method (the Brockes’ method) for preparing primary Schwann cell culture uses neonatal rat sciatic nerves as the primary source of Schwann cells. The procedure is relatively simple and yields a highly purified population of Schwann cells in a short period of time. The method has ...

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Microglia from Progenitor Cells in Mouse Neopallium

This chapter outlines a procedure for initiation of mouse neopallium (cerebral cortex and its underlying white matter) cell cultures and their development into nearly pure microglia cultures. The cytokine CSF-1 is required for the development, survival, and differentiation of mic ...

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Isolation of Microglia Subpopulations

We describe a technique to isolate two major phenotypically different populations of microglia (type I and type II) in mixed brain culture. Type I microglia have surface markers for mature monocytic cells and produce microglia-specific cytokines. Type II microglia have cell-surface c ...

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Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Culture

Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells represent the largest proliferating progenitor population in the postnatal central nervous system. They not only give rise to oligodendrocytes but also have the potential to differentiate into astrocytes or revert to multipotential neural ...

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Preparation of Normal and Reactive Astrocyte Cultures

Here, we describe methods to prepare primary cultures of astrocytes and reactive astrocytes. In 1980, McCarthy and de Vellis reported that highly purified cultures of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes can be obtained from neonatal brain tissue. The primary glial cultures prepared with ...

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Retinal Cell and Tissue Culture

A method for culturing retinal progenitor cells and their progeny is described. The dissociated cell culture is useful to study isolated cells and the influence of cell intrinsic and environmental signals on various cellular processes. The retinal explant assay reproduces the three- ...

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Hippocampal Slice Cultures

We have provided a detailed protocol for the preparation of interface hippocampal slice cultures from young mice or rats and have included modifications of the protocol necessary for culturing electrophysiologically viable slices from older animals. In addition to providing key p ...

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Molecular Substrates for Growing Neurons in Culture

Culturing neurons is an effective way to analyze the basic mechanisms that govern nervous system wiring. The choice of an appropriate molecular substrate is of prime importance to the main objective of the culture. We describe the preparation of basic 2D substrates, complex 2D substrates, and ...

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Neurosphere and Neural Colony-Forming Cell Assays

Our understanding of the biology of stem cells and their therapeutic potential relies heavily on robust functional assays that can identify and measure stem cell activity in vivo and in vitro. In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), neural stem cells (NSC) are often isolated and studied u ...

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Guidance and Outgrowth Assays for Embryonic Thalamic Axons

The assay described in this chapter allows for a relatively simple and fast screening for effects of guidance/growth promoting cues and modulators on dorsal thalamic axons growth. As mentioned in the introduction, the conditions of optimal axon growth in vitro are not identical to conditi ...

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Genetic Animal Models of Anxiety

Conditions such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder cause undue suffering and economic burden on a substantial portion of our society. The prevalence and serious d ...

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