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丁香实验推荐阅读
APP-Based Transgenic Models: The Tg2576 Model

The search for a good animal, preferably mouse, model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most imperative in present medical research, given the increasing prevalence of this disorder in an aging population and its enormous social, economic, and personal impact. In 1996, Karen Hsiao and coll ...

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APP-Based Transgenic Models: The APP23 Model

Animal models are considered essential in research for elucidation of human disease processes and subsequent testing of potential therapeutic strategies. This is especially true for neurodegenerative disorders, in which the first steps in pathogenesis are often not accessible ...

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Presenilin-Based Transgenic Models of Alzheimers Dementia

Since the identification of the mutations in presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 genes more than a decade ago, a great deal of research has filled the gap in our knowledge of mutations underlying various phenotypes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that appear relatively early in the life of presenilin (PS) mut ...

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Optical Manipulation of Protein Activity and Protein Interactions Using Caged Proteins and Optical Switch Protein Conjugates

One of the major challenges in biology is to understand better the molecular regulation of signaling pathways that control complex cellular processes such as motility and proliferation. The experimental approaches employed in such investigations must gather information on cha ...

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Structure-Based Design of Light-Controlled Proteins

Small photochromic molecules are widespread in nature and serve as switches for a plethora of light-controlled processes. In a typical photoreceptor, the different geometries and polarities of the photochrome isomers are tightly coupled to functionally relevant conformatio ...

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Introduction to Part III: Small Molecule Photoswitches

In a truly interdisciplinary fashion, organic chemists and molecular biologists have engineered novel systems that allow externally applied light to regulate protein confirmation in living systems. These highly engineered systems typically involve two distinct parts. The f ...

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Photoswitchable Ligand-Gated Ion Channels

Ligand-activated proteins can be controlled with light by means of synthetic photoisomerizable tethered ligands (PTLs). The application of PTLs to ligand-gated ion channels, including the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and ionotropic glutamate receptors, is reviewed wi ...

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DISC1 Mouse Models

Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) is a strong candidate gene for schizophrenia and major mental disorders. After its discovery in the Scottish chromosomal translocation, DISC1 has gained considerable attention in neuropsychiatric research. Recent studies have implic ...

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Psychiatric Genetics and the Generation of Mutant Animal Models

Accumulating evidence indicates that the genetic architecture of psychiatric disorders does not strictly conform to the common disease/common allele hypothesis. The contribution of common genetic variants, while likely, may be fundamentally different from those of rare gene ...

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Glutathione Deficit and Redox Dysregulation in Animal Models of Schizophrenia

Evidence of altered antioxidant systems and signs of elevated oxidative stress are reported in peripheral tissue and brain of schizophrenic patients, including low levels of glutathione (GSH), a major thiol antioxidant and redox buffer. Functional and genetic data indicate that an im ...

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Studying Schizophrenia in a Dish: Use of Primary Neuronal Cultures to Study the Long-Term Effects of NMDA Receptor Antagonists on Parvalbumin-Positive

Evidence obtained from schizophrenia post-mortem brain studies have pointed to deficiencies in inhibitory systems, in particular of the fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV)-positive inhibitory interneurons, as responsible for several aspects of schizophrenia pathophysio ...

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The Developmental Vitamin D (DVD) Model of Schizophrenia

It is now widely acknowledged that exposure to adverse environmental factors in utero may not only affect how the brain develops but have long-lasting consequences for later brain function in the adult offspring. This idea has gained particular prominence amongst researchers interes ...

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The Hypoxic Rat Model for Obstetric Complications in Schizophrenia

Hypoxia has been discussed as a possible factor of obstetric complications in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study investigated the effects of chronic neonatal hypoxia in rats as an animal model of schizophrenia. Methods: (1) After chronic neonatal hypoxia between postn ...

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Prenatal Infection and Immune Models of Schizophrenia

An increasing number of epidemiologic studies have implicated in utero exposure to infection in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia. Recent work has capitalized on the use of prospectively acquired data on infection based on maternal biomarkers. These studies suggest that seve ...

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Gestational MAM (Methylazoxymethanol) Administration: A Promising Animal Model for Psychosis Onset

This chapter provides an overview on exposure to methylazoxymethanol (MAM) at embryonic day 17 as a promising animal model for schizophrenia that mimics behavioral abnormalities and deficits in prefrontal cortex networks. This early insult produces in adult offspring from E17 MAM- ...

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A Method to the Madness: Producing the Neonatal Ventral Hippocampal Lesion Rat Model of Schizophrenia

The neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) rat model of schizophrenia has demonstrated broad heuristic utility as an investigative platform encompassing many of the behavioral, neurobiological, and developmental aspects of this devastating neuropsychiatric illn ...

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Modeling Schizophrenia in Neuregulin 1 and ErbB4 Mutant Mice

Schizophrenia, a most prevalent brain disorder, remains to be one of the least understood. Unlike Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia lacks clear pathological lesions, which has made it difficult to model in animals. However, genetic studies have recently iden ...

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Epigenetic Animal Models of GABAergic Deficit in Mental Disorders

There is substantial evidence that psychosis is characterized by GABAergic gene promoters that are in a closed chromatin state, leading to reduced transcription of proteins essential for GABAergic and synaptic function in the forebrain. Two critical genes that are downregulated in c ...

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Genetically Engineered Mice for Schizophrenia Research

NMDA receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction theory of schizophrenia has been assessed in rodents with pharmacological intervention and global knockout strategy of NMDAR blockade. However, these manipulations of NMDAR function have been relatively coarse, affecting all NMDA recepto ...

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Models of Rodent Cortical Traumatic Brain Injury

The absence of a pharmacological therapy that is effective in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) highlights the need for further research into the secondary mechanisms that are initiated by the traumatic event, and which determine eventual neurological outcome. Various an ...

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